Addressing Inequality in Vocational/ Technical Education by Eliminating Gender Bias

Eugenia Ganea, Valentina Bodrug-Lungu


The present publication is dedicated to the subject of gender-related inequalities in vocational/technical education and how these are influenced by social norms and gender bias. The research problem is determined by the need to develop a theoretical and methodological support for the teaching staff and for other actors responsible for policies on vocational/technical education. The objectives of the research are to discuss the role played by vocational schools as “fuels” for the labor market, develop gender-sensitive competences of teachers in secondary vocational/technical education, eliminate gender bias in the education and teaching process, create a gender-sensitive environment in vocational/technical schools. This opportunity is directly related to the reform of the vocational education system and national policies on gender equality in Moldova.

Results: it was confirmed that teachers in vocational/technical schools are important actors capable to educate or to influence the education process by adopting gender-sensitive practices and methodological approaches aimed at reducing inequalities and challenges faced by girls in various circumstances in vocational/technical schools. The teaching methods and practices should be based on gender theories, while school policies should promote equal opportunities for girls and boys, and eliminate gender bias in the teaching and education process. Analysis of macro-systemic elements (curriculum, didactic materials, textbooks), as well as micro-system analysis at the level of the training units (pupils` and students` opinions, teachers` opinions) is an important step for understanding gender disparities and reasons that perpetuate gender inequalities in education, and later - at work and in society at large.


Gender inequality; gender mainstreaming; gender bias; education policies; educational segregation

Full Text:

View PDF


Biroul National de Statistica al Republicii Moldova. (2016). Portret statistic al femeilor si barbatilor în Republica Moldova în anul 2016. [Statistical portrait of women and men in the Republic of Moldova in 2016]. Retrieved from

Bodrug-Lungu V., (2016) Gender Aspects of Technical Education. "Current Problems of Urbanism and Territorial Planning", International Conference, Chisinau, November, III, 17-19, 41-46.

Bodrug-Lungu, V., Ganea, E., Triboi, I., (2017). Evaluation Report of the implementation of the National Programme to ensure Gender Equality for years 2010-2015, Chisinau 2015: OSCE, Mission to Moldova, 124.

Centrul “Parteneriat pentru Dezvoltare” (2017). Barometrul de gen. Cum participa femeile si barbatii în politica si în procesele decizionale? [Gender barometer. How do women and men participate in politics and decision-making?]. Retrieved from

Ebenfeld, M. (2018). Gender in teaching. Retrieved from

Edudemic Staff (2015 January 2). Lifelong learning is a crucial educational mindset, Edudemic - online portal for teachers and students [Blog post]. Retrieved from

European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP). (2005). European Qualifications Framework. Retrieved from

Government of Republic of Moldova (2017). Hotarare nr. 1016/2017 cu privire la aprobarea cadrului national al calificarilor din Republica Moldova [Decision no.1016/2017 on approval of national framework of qualifications in Republic of Moldova]. Monitorul Oficial al Republicii Moldova, 421-427, 2017 December 01.

Government of Republic of Moldova. (2013). Hotarare nr. 97/2013 cu privire la aprobarea Strategiei de dezvoltare a învatamîntului vocational/tehnic pe anii 2013-2020 [Decision no. 97/2013 on the approval of the Strategy for the Development of Vocational Education for the years 2013-2020 in the Republic of Moldova]. Monitorul Oficial al Republicii Moldova, 31-35, 2013, February 15.

Government of Republic of Moldova. (2016). Hotarare nr. 1473/2016 cu privire la aprobarea Strategiei nationale privind ocuparea fortei de munca pentru anii 2017–2021 [Decision no. 97/2013 on the approval of the National Employment Strategy for 2017-2021]. Monitorul Oficial al Republicii Moldova, 109-118, 2017, April 07.

Government of Republic of Moldova. (2017). Hotarare nr. 259/2017 cu privire la aprobarea Strategiei pentru asigurarea egalitatii între femei si barbati în Republica Moldova pe anii 2017-2021 si a Planului de actiuni privind implementarea acesteia [Decision no. 259/2017 on the approval of the Strategy for ensuring equality between women and men in the Republic of Moldova for the years 2017-2021 and the Action Plan on its implementation]. Monitorul Oficial al Republicii Moldova, 171-180, 2017, June 02.

Gutu, V., Bîrnaz, N, Dandara, O., Goras-Postica, Handrabura, L., Muraru, E., Paladi, F., Sevciuc, M., Velisco, N. (2015). Cadrul de referinta al curriculumului universitar [The reference framework of the university curriculum]. Chisinau, Republic of Moldova: CEP USM.

Imdorf, C., Hegna, K., Eberhard, V., & Doray, P. (2015), Educational systems and gender segregation in education – A three-country comparison of Germany, Norway and Canada.

International Labour Office (ILO). (1958). The Convention no. 111 concerning Discrimination in Respect of Employment and Occupation or Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention. Retrieved from

International Labour Office (ILO). (2016). Women at work. Retrieved from

Parliament of Republic of Moldova. (2006). Legea nr. 5-XVI/2006 cu privire la asigurarea egalitatii de sanse între femei si barbati [Law no. 5-XVI / 2006 on ensuring equal opportunities for women and men]. Monitorul Oficial al Republicii Moldova, 47-50, 2017, May 12.

Parliament of Republic of Moldova. (2014) Codul Educatiei al Republicii Moldova [The Code of Education of the Republic of Moldova]. Monitorul Oficial al republicii moldova, 319-324, 2014, October 24.

Staats, C. (2014). State of the science: Implicit bias review. Columbus, USA: Kirvan Institute.

UNESCO. (2015). A guide for gender equality in teacher education policy and practices. Retrieved from

UNESCO. (2016). UNESCO TVET Strategy 2016-2021. Retrieved from

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Government of the Republic of Moldova. (2017). Nationalizarea indicatorilor pentru obiectivele de dezvoltare durabila [Nationalization of indicators for sustainable development goals]. Retrieved from

United Nations Organization (UN). (2015). The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Retrieved from



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 The Authors & LUMEN Publishing House

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Copyright © RREM | A LUMEN Peer Reviewed Open Access Journal

Covered in | Web of Sciences (WOS); EBSCO; Google Scholar; Index Copernicus; Ideas RePeC; Econpapers; Socionet; CEEOL; Ulrich ProQuest; Cabell, Journalseek; Scipio; Philpapers; SHERPA/RoMEO repositories; KVK; WorldCat; CrossRef; CrossCheck.