Finite Elements Models of the Head in Craniocerebral Trauma – Review
Keywords:finite element models, head trauma, forensic applications
AbstractHead injuries are a major health and socio-economic problem. To better protect the head against various crash, sport, or fall events, the underlying mechanisms and tolerances need to be investigated. Many investigations have been conducted using cadaver heads, animal heads, physical head models, and in vitro models throughout the world. These experiments, together with the development of computational techniques, have subsequently led to the development of numerical head models, especially finite element (FE) models, to allow more in-depth biomechanical studies. A large number of FE head models have been developed during the years and authors are trying to find the best solutions for a correct explanation of the lesional mechanisms. The finite element method (FEM) is based on the energy formulation of the mechanics of the structures and on approximation methods. It consists of approximating the actual structure through a model consisting of finite elements interconnected in points called nodes. By nodes, each item is under compatibility and balance conditions with adjacent elements. The present paper is a literature review, underlying some of the finite element models, which allowed a good explanation of the head trauma mechanisms.
Al-Bsharat, A., Hardy, W., Yang, K., Khalil, T., Tashman, S., & King, A. (1999). Brain/skull relative displacement magnitude due to blunt head impact: New experimental data and model. Proceedings of the 43rd STAPP Car Crash Conference (pp. 321-332), SAE Technical Paper Series. https://doi.org/10.4271/99sc22
Allsop, D. L., Perl, T. R., & Warner, C. Y. (1991). Force/deflection and fracture characteristics of the temporo- parietal region of the human head. Proceedings of the 35th Stapp Car Crash Conference (pp. 251-261), SAE Technical Paper No. 912907. https://doi.org/10.4271/912907
Bandak, F. A., Van Der Vorst, M. J., Stuhmiller, L. M., Mlakar, P. F., Chilton, W. E., & Stuhmiller, J. H. (1995). An imaging based computational and experimental study of skull fracture: Finite element model development. Journal of Neurotrauma, 12(4), 679-688. https://doi.org/10.1089/neu.1995.12.679
Baumgartner, D. (2001). Mécanismes de lésion et limites de tolérance aux chocs de la tête humaine - Simulations numériques et expérimentales de traumatismes crâniens. Thèse de Doctorat, Université Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France.
Chera-Ferrario, B., Galan, D., & Pica, A. (2019). Enhancing the quality of life in young persons with SEN through swimming exercises in the new era of mobile technologies. Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie Multidimensionala, 11(4Sup1), 43-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.18662/rrem/176
Chitescu, C. L., Radu, A. D., Aciu, F., Moraru, M., & Fulga, I. (2018). New psychoactive substances (NPSs) abuse in Romania: Analytical strategies for drug screening in biological samples using high resolution mass spectrometry. Romanian Journal of Legal Medicine, 26(2), 173-182. Retrieved from http://www.rjlm.ro/system/revista/46/173-182.pdf
Claessens, M., Sauren, F., & Wismans, J. (1997). Modelling of the human head under impact conditions: A parametric study. Proceedings of the STAPP Car Crash Conference (pp. 315-329), Paper No.973338.
Costeniuc, M. (2019). Autonomy and responsibility of the researcher in research on human subjects. Eastern-European Journal of Medical Humanities and Bioethics, 3(1), 01-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.18662/eejmhb.16
Gennarelli A.T., & Thibault E.L. (1982). Acceleration damage to the brain. Proceedings of AGARD Conference, 322.
Gennarelli, T. A., Thibault, L. E., & Ommaya, A. K. (1972). Pathophysiologic responses to rotational and translational accelerations of the head. Proceedings of the 16th STAPP Car Crash Conference, New York, U.S.A. (pp. 296-308).
Hodgson, V. R., Brinn, J., Thomas, L. M., & Greenberg, S. W. (1970). Fracture behaviour of the skull frontal bone against cylindrical surfaces. Proceedings of the 14th Stapp Car Crash Conference (pp. 283-297). https://doi.org/10.4271/700909
Jackson, B. (2019). Ethical principles in the modern world. Logos Universality Mentality Education Novelty: Social Sciences, 8(2), 63-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.18662/lumenss/25
Kang, H. S. (1998). Modélisation de la tête humaine sous accélérations extrèmes par la méthode des éléments finis – Application au choc et à l’hypergravité. Thèse de Doctorat, Université Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France
King, A., Yang, K., Zhang, L., & Hardy, W. (2003). Is head injury caused by linear or angular acceleration? Conference Proceedings of the International Research Council on Biokinetics of Impacts (IRCOBI) (pp. 1-12).
Kleiven, S., & Hardy, W. (2002). Correlation of an FE model of the human head with local brain motion- Consequences for injury prediction. Stapp Car Crash Journal, 46, 123-144. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17096222
Margulies, S. S., & Thibault, L. E. (1989). An analytical model of traumatic diffuse brain injury. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 111(3), 241-249. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3168373
Newman, J., Beusenberg, M., Fournier, E., Shewchenko, N., Withnall, C., King, A., Yang, K., Zhang, L., McElhaney, J., Thibault, L., & McGinnis, G. (1999). A new biomechanical assessment of mild traumatic brain injury – Part 1 – Methodology. Conference Proceedings of the International Research Council on Biokinetics of Impacts (IRCOBI) (pp. 17-36). Retrieved from http://www.ircobi.org/wordpress/downloads/irc1999/pdf_files/1999_2.pdf
Nyquist, G. W., Cavanaugh, J. M., Goldberg, S. J., & King, A. I. (1986). Facial impact tolerance and response. Proceedings of the 30th STAPP Car Crash Conference (pp. 379-389), SAE Technical Paper Series. https://doi.org/10.4271/861896
Ono, K., Kikuchi, A., Nakamura, M., Kabayashi, H., & Nakamura, N. (1980). Human head tolerance to sagittal impact : Reliable estimation deduced from experimental head injury using primates and human cadaver skulls. Proceedings of the 24th STAPP Car Crash Conference, Warrendale, USA. Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), SAE Paper No. 801303. https://doi.org/10.4271/801303
Perju-Dumbrava, D., Anitan, S., Siserman, C., Fulga, I., & Opincaru, I. (2010). Virtopsy - an alternative to the conventional autopsy. Romanian Journal of Legal Medicine, 18(1), 75-78. https://doi.org/10.4323/rjlm.2010.75
Ruan, J. S., Kahlil, T. B., & King, A. I. (1993). Finite element modelling of direct head impact. Proceedings of the 37th STAPP Car Crash Conference,U.S.A. (pp. 69-81). SAE Paper No. 933114. https://doi.org/10.4271/933114
Ruan, J. S., Kahlil, T., & King, A. I. (1991). Human head dynamic response to side impact by finite element modelling. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 113(3), 276-283. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2894885
Shugar, T. A. (1977). A finite element head injury model. Report n° DOT HS 289-3-550-TA, vol. 1.
Thali, M. J., Kneubuehl, B. P., & Dirnhofer, R. (2002). A "skin-skull-brain model" for the biomechanical reconstruction of blunt forces to the human head. Forensic Science International, 125(2-3), 195-200. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0379-0738(01)00639-9
Trosseille, X., Tarrière, C., Lavaste, F., Guillon, F., & Domont, A. (1992). Development of a FEM of the human head according to a specific test protocol. Proceedings of the 36th STAPP Car Crash Conference (pp. 235-253), SAE Technical Paper Series. https://doi.org/10.4271/922527
Ward, C.C., Chan, M., & Nahum, A. M. (1980). Intracranial pressure: A brain injury criterion. Proceedings of the 24th STAPP Car Crash Conference, Warrendale, USA (pp. 347-360). SAE Paper No. 801304. https://doi.org/10.4271/801304
Wichsova, J., & Horakova, A. (2018). Perioperative ethics and patient safety. Postmodern Openings, 9(4), 184-196. http://dx.doi.org/10.18662/po/51
Willinger, R., & Césari, D. (1990). Evidence of cerebral movement at impact through mechanical impedance methods. Conference Proceedings of the International Research Council on Biokinetics of Impacts (IRCOBI) (pp. 203-213).
Willinger, R., Kang, H. S., & Diaw, B. M. (1999). Développement et validation d'un modèle mécanique de la tête humaine. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences - Series IIB - Mechanics-Physics-Astronomy, 327(1), 125-131. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1287-4620(99)80021-0
Willinger, R., Taleb, L., & Kopp, C. M. (1995). Modal and temporal analysis of head mathematical models. Journal of Neurotrauma, 12(4), 743-54. https://doi.org/10.1089/neu.1995.12.743
Zhang, L., King, K. H., Dwarampudi, R., Omori, K., Li, T. B., Hardy, W., Khalil, T., & King, A. I. (2001). Recent advances in brain injury research: A new human head model development and validation. Stapp Car Crash Journal, 45, 369-394.
Zhou, C., Kahlil, T. B., & Dragovic, L. J. (1996). Head injury assessment of a real world crash by finite element modelling. Proceedings. of AGARD Conference.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant this journal right of first publication, with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work, with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g. post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g. in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as an earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
BRAIN. Broad Research in Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience Journal has an Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs