Chemical Biomarkers of Diffusse Axonal Injury

Authors

  • Iuliana HUNEA The Institute of Forensic Medicine, Iasi, Romania "Gr. T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi, Romania
  • Diana BULGARU ILIESCU The Institute of Forensic Medicine, Iasi, Romania; Department of Forensic Medicine, "Gr. T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi, Romania
  • Simona-Irina DAMIAN Associate Professor PhD, Department of Forensic Medicine, Gr. T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi; The Institute of Forensic Medicine, Iasi.
  • Nona GÎRLESCU The Institute of Forensic Medicine, Iasi, Romania; Department of Forensic Medicine, "Gr. T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi, Romania
  • Madalina-Maria DIAC The Institute of Forensic Medicine, Iasi, Romania; Department of Forensic Medicine, "Gr. T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi, Romania
  • Vlad Adrian AFRĂSÂNIE "Gr. T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi, Romania
  • Manuela CIOCOIU Pathophysiology Department, "Gr. T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi, Romania

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18662/brain/11.2/72

Keywords:

TAI biomarkers, traumatic brain injury, traumatic axonal injury, diffuse axonal injury.

Abstract

Craniocerebral trauma is the most common cause of death and post-traumatic disability in people under 45 years of age. In Romania, the annual incidence shows, that for every 100,000 inhabitants, there are 300 cases of craniocerebral trauma that require specialized medical assistance. Craniocerebral traumas are the most common types of traumas encountered in current forensic practice. Research on the mechanisms of injury, the timing of head trauma and the establishment of causes of death remain relevant. Establishing the traumatic moment implies both the distinction between pre-mortem and post-mortem injuries but also considerations regarding the post-traumatic survival interval. Regarding the elucidation of the moment of occurrence of the craniocerebral trauma from the forensic point of view, a satisfactory result has not been reached so far. The classic hypothesis regarding the development of traumatic brain injuries shows that they are the result of primary traumatic injuries due to cell necrosis combined with the inflammatory brain response that causes secondary brain injuries.

It was considered that post-traumatic neuronal losses are strictly due to necrosis and inflammation, and cellular apoptosis being a physiological process, does not play a role in this process. Due to recent experimental data, brain cell apoptosis has begun to be reevaluated. The pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury is far from being fully understood, with the idea that apoptosis would play an even more important role than originally thought. Specifically, damaged brain cells release neuromodulatory substances that can lead to late-onset neuronal damage long after necrotic and inflammatory brain phenomena have ceased to act. These neuronal cell losses are responsible for the development of various neurological deficits and post-traumatic sequelae.

Author Biographies

Iuliana HUNEA, The Institute of Forensic Medicine, Iasi, Romania "Gr. T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi, Romania

The Institute of Forensic Medicine, Iasi, Romania
"Gr. T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi, Romania

Diana BULGARU ILIESCU, The Institute of Forensic Medicine, Iasi, Romania; Department of Forensic Medicine, "Gr. T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi, Romania

The Institute of Forensic Medicine, Iasi, Romania; Department of Forensic Medicine,

"Gr. T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy,

Simona-Irina DAMIAN, Associate Professor PhD, Department of Forensic Medicine, Gr. T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi; The Institute of Forensic Medicine, Iasi.

Associate Professor PhD, Department of Forensic Medicine, Gr. T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi, Romania;
The Institute of Forensic Medicine, Iasi, Romania

Nona GÎRLESCU, The Institute of Forensic Medicine, Iasi, Romania; Department of Forensic Medicine, "Gr. T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi, Romania

The Institute of Forensic Medicine, Iasi, Romania; Department of Forensic Medicine, Iasi, Romania

"Gr. T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi, Romania

Madalina-Maria DIAC, The Institute of Forensic Medicine, Iasi, Romania; Department of Forensic Medicine, "Gr. T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi, Romania

The Institute of Forensic Medicine, Iasi, Romania; Department of Forensic Medicine, Iasi, Romania

 "Gr. T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi, Romania

Vlad Adrian AFRĂSÂNIE, "Gr. T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi, Romania

"Gr. T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi, Romania

Manuela CIOCOIU, Pathophysiology Department, "Gr. T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi, Romania

Pathophysiology Department, "Gr. T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi, Romania

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Published

2020-07-03

How to Cite

HUNEA, I., BULGARU ILIESCU, D., DAMIAN, S.-I., GÎRLESCU, N., DIAC, M.-M., AFRĂSÂNIE, V. A., & CIOCOIU, M. (2020). Chemical Biomarkers of Diffusse Axonal Injury. BRAIN. Broad Research in Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience, 11(2), 18-32. https://doi.org/10.18662/brain/11.2/72

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