Digital Mental Health in Ireland: Effectiveness and the Future of the Service
Keywords:Digital Mental health, Ireland, Mental disorders, CBT, Mental health, Neuropsychotherapy.
Purpose: Mental disorders are serious concern in our society. In the era of digital technology, Telemental health and mental health apps are becoming an avenue where people seek mental health support, but in general very little is known about the effectiveness of the service considering the complexities surrounding mental disorder as a disease. In the light of COVID-19 pandemic, researchers noticed a spike in anxiety levels amongst the populace, prompting more people to use the service. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the users of the service to check the effectiveness, the cost of the service, and to ask whether users will opt for the service in the future.
Design and Methods: Three major questions were asked to adult participants (ages 18-35 years; n=50). Female participants(n-25) and Male participants (n-25).Within the semi-structured interviews, participants were also allowed to share their lived experiences to enhance this study. The questions are as follows: 1. The effectiveness of the service in terms of recovery 2. The cost of service 3. The question about the future use of the service. Differences in groups and research variables were compared across the demographics. To measure psychopathology, PHQ-9, GAD-7, SAQ, Insomnia Severity Index and ASI-Lite were used to evaluate the conditions and description of the participants. This evaluation is employed to validate the patient's threshold for Telemental health intervention.
Results: The people that are more likely to use the service in the future were female (85%) than their male counterpart (64%), but the groups are similar concerning the effectiveness of the service. When controlled for gender, male (85%) and female (80%) were more satisfied with the service they receive and record a positive outlook of their conditions. Compared with first-time users of the service, regular users mention service providers as key to their recovery. Participants (18-35 years, n-50) describe depression, anxiety, addictions and insomnia as the reason for the use of the service, issues responsive to neuropsychotherapeutical and cognitive behavioural therapy. About the cost, the participants (68%) seem to be satisfied with the cost while (32%) would prefer cost re-duction. (Mean age-25.96 years) and (s.d-5.32).
This data shows the effectiveness of Telemental health service. If expanded on a larger scale, it can take the pressure off the traditional mental health care system in Ireland, giving the practitioners time to focus on severe mental conditions. However, variables in the contextual description of patient's experiences will require value-based treatment where individual factors (bio-psycho-social analysis) are needed to be incorporated into the treatment. Besides, the data also reveals that continuous destigmatization of mental disorders will encourage men to opt for the service if societal judgment diminishes. Translating this data to the global data on mental disorders means that those regions, including rural areas without mental health support, that is, traditional mental health care infrastructure, their governments should be encouraged to implement Telemental health service as the effectiveness is confirmed through this data. This may help reduce the morbidity numbers linked with disorders globally, thus improving the well-being of patients.
Ayob, G. (2013). Getting the personal perspective into view. Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology, 20(2), 127-130. https://doi.org/10.1353/ppp.2013.0031
Bamijoko-Okungbaye, A. (2018). Does Charlie gard deserve to be taken off life support? Postmodern Openings, 9(1), 7-21. https://doi.org/10.18662/po/02
Bamijoko-Okungbaye, A. (2019). Depression: Rebalancing Neuroessentialist Da-ta. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience & Mental Health, 2(4), 243-253.
Bamijoko-Okungbaye, A., Firdosi, M. & Koukoularis, D. (2020). Gaming disor-der: A contemporary ampliative account. BRAIN. Broad Research In Artifi-cial Intelligence And Neuroscience, 11(1), 01-13. https://doi.org/10.18662/brain/11.1/11
Bastien, C. (2001). Validation of the insomnia severity index as an outcome measure for insomnia research. Sleep Medicine, 2(4), 297-307. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1389-9457(00)00065-4
Bauman, S. & Rivers, I. (2015). Mental health in the digital age. Springer Link. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137333179
Bergin, M., Wells, J. S. & Owen, S. (2012). Towards a gendered perspective for Irish mental health policy and service provision. Journal of Mental Health, 22(4), 350-360. https://doi.org/10.3109/09638237.2012.714513
Brody, H. (2016). Beyond mind and body. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 59(2), 276-282. https://doi.org/10.1353/pbm.2017.0012
Cohen, A. B. & Martin, S. S. (2020). Innovation without integration. npj Digital Medicine, 3(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41746-020-0220-z
Creswell, J. W. & Clark, V. L. (2011). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. SAGE.
Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approach-es. SAGE.
Derra, C. (2017). Die Originalform Der Progressiven relaxation von Edmund Jacobson. In C. Derra (Ed.), Progressive Relaxation (pp. 39-52). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-54248-4_2
Devlin, H. (2018, October 8). Genetics research 'biased towards studying white Europeans'. The Guardian.
Edwards, E. & Wall, M. (2019, February 9). Tens of thousands rally in support of nurses in Dublin. The Irish Times. https://www.irishtimes.com/news/ireland/irish-news/tens-of-thousands-rally-in-support-of-nurses-in-dublin-1.3788291
Espada Sánchez, J. P., Gonzálvez Maestre, M. T. & Orgilés, M. (2018). Substance use in Spanish adolescents: The relationship between depression and so-cial support seeking. Health and Addictions/Salud y Drogas, 18(2), 27. https://doi.org/10.21134/haaj.v18i2.337
Gadamer, H. (2018). The Enigma of health: The art of healing in a scientific age. John Wiley & Sons.
Green, E. & Green, A. (1977). Beyond biofeedback. Delacorte Press.
Green, E., Green, A. & Walters, E. (1970). Progress of cybernetics. In J. Rose (Ed.), Proceedings of the first international Congress of cybernetics. Gordon & Breach.
Guest, G., Bunce, A. & Johnson, L. (2006). How many interviews are enough? Field Methods, 18(1), 59-82. https://doi.org/10.1177/1525822x05279903
Gungov, A. L. (2018). Patient safety: The relevance of logic in medical care. Ibidem Press.
HSE, Ireland. (2020). Mental health services. HSE.ie.
Hughes, J. C. & Fulford, K. (2005). Hurly-burly of psychiatric ethics. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 39(11-12), 1001-1007. https://doi.org/10.1080/j.1440-1614.2005.01717.x
Ibáñez, V., Silva, J. & Cauli, O. (2018). A survey on sleep questionnaires and dia-ries. Sleep Medicine, 42, 90-96.
Idemudia, E. S. (2014). Associations between demographic factors and perceived acculturative stress among African migrants in Germany. African Popula-tion Studies, 28(1), 449. https://doi.org/10.11564/28-1-499
Cullen, P. (2018, November 22). The Irish Times. https://www.irishtimes.com/news/health/ireland-has-one-of-the-highest-rates-of-mental-health-illness-in-europe-report-finds-1.3707073
Jacobson, E. (1938). Progressive relaxation. University of Chicago Press.
Kan, K. K. (2008). Validation of the insomnia severity index, Athens insomnia scale and sleep quality index in adolescent population in Hong Kong. Open Dissertation Press.
Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L. & Williams, J. B. (2001). The PHQ-9. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16(9), 606-613.
LeGris, J. (2001). Nurse Telehealth care reduced depressive symptoms and im-proved functioning. Evidence-Based Mental Health, 4(2), 49-49. https://doi.org/10.1136/ebmh.4.2.49
McGarry, P. (2015, December 18). Almost one in eight living in Ireland hail from abroad. The Irish Times. https://www.irishtimes.com/news/social-affairs/religion-and-beliefs/almost-one-in-eight-living-in-ireland-hail-from-abroad-1.2471339
McLellan, A. T., Luborsky, L., Woody, G. E. & O’Brien, C. P. (1980). An im-proved diagnostic evaluation instrument for substance abuse patients. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 168(1), 26-33. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005053-198001000-00006
McMahon, J., Ryan, F., Cannon, M., O’Brien, G., O’Callaghan, M., Flanagan, R., O’Connor, K., Chambers, D., Byrne, S. & McGorry, P. (2018). Where next for youth mental health services in Ireland? Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine, 36(3), 163-167. https://doi.org/10.1017/ipm.2018.12
O’Connor, S. (2019). Tele-health-monitoring may decrease emergency room visits and hospitalisation in patients with COPD. Evidence Based Nursing, 23(1), 18-18. https://doi.org/10.1136/ebnurs-2019-103080
Patton, M. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods (2nd ed.). Sage.
Powell, A., Singh, P. & Torous, J. (2018). The complexity of mental health app privacy policies: A potential barrier to privacy (Preprint). https://doi.org/10.2196/preprints.9871
Rowland, S. P., Fitzgerald, J. E., Holme, T., Powell, J. & McGregor, A. (2020). What is the clinical value of mHealth for patients? npj Digital Medicine, 3(1), 4. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41746-019-0206-x
Spitzer, R. L., Kroenke, K., Williams, J. B. & Löwe, B. (2006). A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166(10), 1092. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.166.10.1092
Stein, D. J. (1997). Cognitive science and the unconscious. American Psychiatric Pub.
Suleiman, D. (2016). Mental health disorders in Nigeria: A highly neglected dis-ease. Annals of Nigerian Medicine, 10(2), 47. https://doi.org/10.4103/0331-3131.206214
Tedeschi, R. G., Shakespeare-Finch, J., Taku, K. & Calhoun, L. G. (2018). Post-traumatic growth. Theory, reseach and applications. Routledge.
Tomasi, D. L. (2020). Critical neuroscience and philosophy: A scientific re-examination of the mind-body problem. Springer Nature.
WHO. (2020a). Gender and women's mental health. WHO | World Health Organ-ization.
WHO. (2020b). Mental disorders affect one in four people. WHO |
World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/whr/2001/media_centre/press_release/en/
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant this journal right of first publication, with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work, with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g. post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g. in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as an earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
BRAIN. Broad Research in Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience Journal has an Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs