Psycho-Pedagogical Prevention of Aggressive Behaviours in Athletes
Keywords:individual self-actualization, humanistic values, work with athletes, work with pedagogical team and parents, work with students' families, psychological sessions with parents.
Life activities of students from higher education institutions are largely influenced by certain adverse factors (social, psychological, environmental ones), which in turn negatively affect their physical and mental health and cause particular behavioural deviations such as aggression. The research aims to theoretically justify, develop and experimentally verify the programme on prevention of aggressive behaviours in athletes due to cultivating their humanistic values and capacity for self-actualization. The research sample of the formative experiment comprised 177 athletes (92 respondents in the experimental group and 85 respondents in the control group). The research assumes that, if well-developed, humanistic values of individual self-actualization (developing one’s positive attitude towards the surrounding people, ability to understand them, accept oneself and others and reality, striving for new knowledge, identifying oneself in this world, setting goals) can be considered as a means of prevention of aggressive behaviours in students; the process of developing athletes’ capacity for self-actualization as a means of psychological prevention of aggressive behaviours is determined by an appropriate organization of activities performed by students, their parents, psychologists, teachers based on personality-oriented and humanistic approaches. The level of self-actualization was based on E. Shostrom’s test and the self-actualization scale by A. Jones and R. Crandall; the level of aggression was identified based on the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory. The accuracy of changes in the groups was verified using the Mann-Whitney U Test. Results. A quantitative interpretation of the results obtained from the formative experiment proves that the arithmetic mean of self-actualization parameters in respondents in the experimental group has increased significantly (by 22%), whereas they have remained almost unchanged in the control group. Concerning the arithmetic mean of parameters of aggressive behaviours in athletes, they have decreased significantly (by 18%) in the experimental group. This is because athletes' capacity for self-actualization has been developed without direct influence on their aggressive behaviours. Conclusions. In comparison with their peers in the control group, athletes in the experimental group have significantly improved their conflict management skills as a result of developing a more positive attitude towards others, as well as behavioural flexibility, communication skills and capacity for self-development.
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