From Pandemic to Infodemic
Keywords:Pandemic, infodemic, Covid-19, personal freedoms, bioethics.
AbstractIn this article we will address the topic of fake news (Peters, 2018), which represents a real threat to society and could be considered a public health issue. The fake news campaign that accompanied public communications during the pandemic was named, by the Worls Health Organization (2020), infodemic, considering that its purpose was to generate panic and create social and economic problems, which would seriously overcome the initial public health problem - namely that of the pandemic -, to destabilize both states and global alliances. From an ethical point of view, we must notice the negative impact of infodemic, both on public health and on humanity in general; this can lead to deviations from democracy and human rights and, ultimately, to the dehumanization of society through the emphasis on social anxiety and the exacerbation of desocializing fears, which increase social distancing far beyond the limit of the physical distancing necessary to combat the pandemic.
Agerpres. (2020, Aprilie 3). Orban, despre prelungirea stării de urgenţă: În funcţie de evoluţia epidemiei vom lua cele mai potrivite decizii [Orban, on prolonging the state of emergency: Depending on the evolution of the epidemic, we will make the most appropriate decisions]. Agerpres.
Andreiana, S. (2020, May 4). Afirmaţie şocantă a lui Horaţiu Moldovan despre decesele COVID-19: ”80% ar fi murit oricum”. Confirmă tezele lui Vasile Astărăstoae [Shocking statement by Horaţiu Moldovan about the deaths of COVID-19: "80% would have died anyway." Confirms the theses of Vasile Astărăstoae]. Capital.ro. https://www.capital.ro/afirmatie-socanta-a-lui-horatiu-moldovan-despre-decesele-covid-19-80-ar-fi-murit-oricum-confirma-tezele-lui-vasile-astarastoae.html
Brownsword, R., & Wale, J. (2017). The Right to Know and the Right Not to Know Revisited: Part One. Asian Bioethics Review, 9, 3–18 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41649-017-0012-1
Caulfield, T. (2020, April 27). Pseudoscience and COVID-19 — we’ve had enough already. Nature.
Foucault, M. (1990). Les Mots et les Choses: Une Archeologie des Sciences Humaines. Gallimard.
Gautret, P., Lagier, J-C., Parola, P., Hoang, T., Meddeb, L., Mailhe, M., Doudier, B., Courjon, J., Giordanengo, V., Esteves Vieira, V., Dupont, H. T., Honoré, S., Colsona, P., Chabrière, E., La Scola, B., Rolain, J-M., Brouqui, P., & Raoult, D. (2020). Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 105949. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949
Greer, S. L., Bekker, M., Azzopardi-Muscat, N., & McKee, M. (2018). Political analysis in public health: middle-range concepts to make sense of the politics of health. The European Journal of Public Health, 28(Suppl 3), 3–6. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/cky159
Habermas, J. (1985). The Theory of Communicative Action, Volume 1: Reason and the Rationalization of Society (T. McCarthy, Trans.). Beacon Press.
Ion, T. (2020, April 27). COVID-19: ONU solicită ţărilor să respecte statul de drept pentru a evita ”o catastrofă pentru drepturile omului, ale cărei efecte nefaste vor depăşi cu mult pandemia însăşi” [COVID-19: UN urges countries to respect the rule of law to avoid "a human rights catastrophe, the harmful effects of which will far outweigh the pandemic itself"]. Caleaeuropeana.ro. https://www.caleaeuropeana.ro/covid-19-onu-solicita-tarilor-sa-respecte-statul-de-drept-pentru-a-evita-o-catastrofa-pentru-drepturile-omului-ale-carei-efecte-nefaste-vor-depasi-cu-mult-pandemia-insasi/
Kant, I. (2007). Întemeierea metafizicii moravurilor [The foundation of the metaphysics of morals]. Humanitas.
Kant, I. (2010). Critica raţiunii practice [Critique of practical reason]. Univers Enciclopedic.
Lehman, J. G. (2020). A Brief Explanation Of The Overton Window. Mackinac Center [Video File]. https://www.mackinac.org/OvertonWindow?fbclid=IwAR2H1bL0TbWYZaqz177GlLT9GPJdcTgV0BH8S6fMdX7fQTyUNn0FDCEORrQ
Mackinnon, M. (2020, March 27). For China and Russia, coronavirus hoaxes are another strain of disinformation warfare. The Globe and Mail.
McDonald, J. (2020, April 6). COVID-19 Face Mask Advice, Explained. FactCheck.ORG.
Moch, K., & Caplan, A. (2020, April 28). Speculation in the absence of data that can be deadly. Daily News. https://www.tribpub.com/gdpr/nydailynews.com/
Peters, M. A. (2018). The information wars, fake news and the end of globalisation. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 50(13), 1161-1164. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131857.2017.1417200
Popper, K.R. (2002). Logic of Scientific Discovery. Taylor & Francis Ltd.
Raoult, D. (2020, April 6). Hydroxychloroquine-COVID-19 study did not meet publishing society’s “expected standard”. Retraction Watch. https://retractionwatch.com/2020/04/06/hydroxychlorine-covid-19-study-did-not-meet-publishing-societys-expected-standard/
Scott, M. (2020, April 1). Russia and China push ‘fake news’ aimed at weakening Europe: report. Politico. https://www.politico.eu/article/russia-china-disinformation-coronavirus-covid19-facebook-google/
Somper, J. (2020, May 6). MASK FARCE Hundreds of thousands of useless face masks sent to NHS trusts battling Covid-19. The Sun. https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/11566396/useless-masks-nhs-coronavirus-battle/
Spinney, L. (2019, October 15). How pandemics shape social evolution. Nature. https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-03048-8
Talbot, G. H. (2019). Widening the Overton Window—While Avoiding Defenestration. Clinical Infectious Diseases, ciz990. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz990
World Health Organization (2020, April 15). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report – 86. World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200415-sitrep-86-covid-19.pdf
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant this journal right of first publication, with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work, with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g. post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g. in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as an earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
BRAIN. Broad Research in Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience Journal has an Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs