Morphometry of the Foramen Magnum for Sex Estimation in Romanian Adult Population

Authors

  • Madalina Maria DIAC Department of Forensic Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Grigore T. Popa” Iasi, Romania Institute of Legal Medicine, Iasi, Romania
  • Iuliana HUNEA Department of Morpho-Functional Sciences II, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Grigore T. Popa” Iasi, Romania, Institute of Legal Medicine, Iasi, Romania
  • Nona GIRLESCU Department of Morpho-Functional Sciences I, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Grigore T. Popa” Iasi, Romania; Institute of Legal Medicine, Iasi, Romania
  • Anton KNIELING Department of Forensic Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Grigore T. Popa” Iasi, Romania; Institute of Legal Medicine, Iasi, Romania
  • Simona Irina DAMIAN Department of Forensic Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Grigore T. Popa” Iasi, Romania; Institute of Legal Medicine, Iasi, Romania
  • Diana BULGARU ILIESCU Department of Forensic Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Grigore T. Popa” Iasi, Romania; Institute of Legal Medicine, Iasi, Romania

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18662/brain/11.4/150

Keywords:

sex determination, foramen magnum, anthropometric measurements, forensic anthropology

Abstract

The foramen magnum makes the transition between the cephalic extremity and the spine, which is an anatomical element of the skull. So, there are multiple situations when the skull is the only skeletal element available for anthropological analysis. In this respect, the foramen magnum can provide valuable information in terms of skeletal anthropological expertise. According to the literature, the foramen magnum provides, from a morphometric and morphological point of view, individual and population characteristics. The study aims to evaluate the morphometry of the foramen magnum for establish the sex of an unknown person, specific for Romanian adult population. The authors analyzed morphometrically the foramen magnum of 50 cranio-cerebral computer tomographic images. Measurements of the foramen magnum were taken anteroposterior diameter, transverse diameter, based on the two being calculated the anthropometric index and the area of the foramen magnum. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 23. Discriminant function analysis was applied, and discriminant formulas were created for sex determination of Romanian adult population. The results of the analysis are impressive and have a good applicability in a forensic anthropological context. The data used in this paper provides reliable results with a large applicability in the future for estimating the sex from foramen magnum for Romanian adult population.

Author Biographies

Madalina Maria DIAC, Department of Forensic Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Grigore T. Popa” Iasi, Romania Institute of Legal Medicine, Iasi, Romania

Madalina Maria Diac. M.D., graduated University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Gr. T. Popa" in 2014 and Criminalistics Master of the Faculty of Juridical Sciences, University "Al. I. Cuza" Iasi in 2017. In present, Ph.D student in Forensic Medicine at the University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Gr. T. Popa" Iasi, Romania, from 2016. Currently MD, specialty Forensic Medicine, at the Institute of Legal Medicine Iaşi and also as assistant professor at the University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Gr. T. Popa" Iaşi, Romania. Author and co-author of various papers in journals and conferences.

Iuliana HUNEA, Department of Morpho-Functional Sciences II, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Grigore T. Popa” Iasi, Romania, Institute of Legal Medicine, Iasi, Romania

Iuliana Hunea M.D., graduated University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Gr. T. Popa" in 2014. From 2015 to present, Ph.D student in Pathophysiology at the University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Gr. T. Popa" Iasi, Romania  and student at Faculty of Law, University "Al. I. Cuza" Iasi from 2015. Currently MD, specialty Forensic Medicine, at the Institute of Legal Medicine Iaşi. Author and co-author of various papers in journals and conferences.

Nona GIRLESCU, Department of Morpho-Functional Sciences I, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Grigore T. Popa” Iasi, Romania; Institute of Legal Medicine, Iasi, Romania

 

Gîrlescu Nona. M.D., graduated University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Gr. T. Popa" in 2014 and Criminalistics Master of the Faculty of Juridical Sciences, University "Al. I. Cuza" Iasi in 2017. In present, Ph. D student in Forensic Medicine at the University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Gr. T. Popa" Iasi, Romania, from 2017. Currently MD, specialty Forensic Medicine, at the Institute of Legal Medicine Iaşi and also as assistant professor at the University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Gr. T. Popa" Iaşi, Romania. Author and co-author of various papers in journals and conferences.

Anton KNIELING, Department of Forensic Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Grigore T. Popa” Iasi, Romania; Institute of Legal Medicine, Iasi, Romania

 

Anton Knieling. Ph.D. in Medical Sciences at the University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Grigore T. Popa” Iasi Romania. M.D. graduated University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Grigore T. Popa” Iasi. Associate professor at the Faculty of Juridical Sciences University "Al. I. Cuza" Iasi. Currently works as Assistant Professor at the University of Medicine and   Pharmacy   "Gr.   T.   Popa"   Iasi,   Romania   and   as   MD, specialty   Forensic   Medicine,   at   the   Institute   of   Legal Medicine   Iasi.   Author   and   co-author   of   various   papers   in journals and conferences.

Simona Irina DAMIAN, Department of Forensic Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Grigore T. Popa” Iasi, Romania; Institute of Legal Medicine, Iasi, Romania

 

Simona-Irina Damian. Ph.D. in Medical Sciences at the University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Gr. T. Popa" Iasi, Romania, 2012. M.D., graduated University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Gr. T. Popa" in 1998 and Faculty of Juridical Sciences, University "Mihail Kogalniceanu" Iasi in 2006. Master in Penal Sciences and Criminalistics in 2007. Post-doctoral researcher in Ethics and Psychiatry. Currently works as Assistant Professor at the University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Gr. T. Popa" Iaşi, Romania and as MD, specialty Forensic Medicine, at the Institute of Legal Medicine Iaşi. Author and co-author of various papers in journals and conferences.

Diana BULGARU ILIESCU, Department of Forensic Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Grigore T. Popa” Iasi, Romania; Institute of Legal Medicine, Iasi, Romania

Diana Bulgaru-Iliescu, Forensic MD and Director of the Institute of Legal Medicine in Iași. She holds a PhD in Medical Sciences, and has a Master in Bioethics. She is a member of the Superior Committee of Legal Medicine, founding member of the Romanian Society of Bioethics and member of the Legal medicine Society. Author/co-author of over 50 articles published in scientific journals with high impact, chapters and books in the field of forensics. Associated Professor since 2005 of the Faculty of Law at Al. I. Cuza University in Iasi and beginning with 2015, Professor of the Faculty of Medicine, at University Gr. T Popa, Iasi.

References

Burdan, F., Szumito, J., Walocha, J., Klepacz, L., Madej, B., Dworzanski, W., Klepacz, R., Dworzanska, A., Czekajska-Chehab, E., Drop, A. (2012). Morphology of the foramen magnum in young Eastern European adults. Folia Morphologica, 71(4), 205-216. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23197139/

Cattaneo, C. (2007). Forensic anthropology: developments of a classical discipline in the new millennium. Forensic Science International, 165 (2-3) 185-193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2006.05.018

Francesquini Junior, L., Francesquini de la Cruz, B.M., Pereira, S.D.R., Ambrosano, G.M.B., Barbosa, C.M.R., Daruge Junior, E., Del Bey Cury, A.A., Daruge, E. (2007). Identification of sex using cranial base measurements. The Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology, 25(1), 7-11. https://europepmc.org/article/med/17577972

Iscan, M.Y., Steyn, M. (2013). The human skeleton in forensic medicine. (3rd ed.). Illinois, Charles C Thomas, USA, 493 pp. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.22754

Jain, S.K., Choudhary, A.K., Mishra, P. (2013). Morphometric evaluation of foramen magnum for sex determination in a documented north Indian sample. Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences, 2(42), 8093-8098. https://jemds.com/abstract.php?at_id=2274

Moodley, M., Rennie, C., Lazarus, L., Satyapal, K.S. (2019). The morphometry and morphology of the foramen magnum in age and sex determination within the South African Black Population utilizing computer tomography (CT) scans. International Journal of Morphology, 37(1), 251-257. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-95022019000100251

Natsis, K., Piagkou, M., Skotsimara, G., Piagkos, G., Skandalakis, P. (2013). A morphometric anatomical and comparative study of the foramen magnum region in a Greek population. Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy, 35(10), 925-934. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00276-013-1119-z

Raxter, M. H, Ruff, C. B. (2018). Full skeleton stature estimation. In K., Lathmam, E., Barteling, Finnegan, M. (eds.). New perspectives in forensic human skeletal identification. (pp. 105-114). Elsevier, London, UK

Samara, O. A., Amarin, J. Z., Badran, D. H., Al-Khayat, O. W., Suradi, H. H., Shatarat, A. T., Hadidi, M.T. (2017). Morphometric analysis of the foramen magnum. International Journal of Morphology, 35(4), 1270-1275. http://www.intjmorphol.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/art_13_354.pdf

Sharma, A., Ramandeep, K., Sharma Kumar, M. (2019). Foramen Magnum: morphometry, possible variation in the shape and its clinical implication. Int J Scientific Study, 6(10), 13-16. https://www.ijss-sn.com/uploads/2/0/1/5/20153321/ijss_jan_oa03_-_2019.pdf

Standring, S. (2008). Gray's Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice. (40th ed.). Churchill Livingstone Elsevier

Vinutha, S.P., Suresh, V., Shubha, R. (2018). Discriminant Function Analysis of Foramen Magnum variables in South Indian Population: a study of computerized tomographic images. Anatomy Research International, 1(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/2056291

Downloads

Published

2020-12-22

How to Cite

DIAC, M. M., HUNEA, I. ., GIRLESCU, N. ., KNIELING, A. ., DAMIAN, S. I. ., & BULGARU ILIESCU, D. . (2020). Morphometry of the Foramen Magnum for Sex Estimation in Romanian Adult Population . BRAIN. Broad Research in Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience, 11(4), 231-243. https://doi.org/10.18662/brain/11.4/150

Most read articles by the same author(s)


Publish your work at the Scientific Publishing House LUMEN

It easy with us: publish now your work, novel, research, proceeding at Lumen Scientific Publishing House

Send your manuscript right now