Formal, Non-formal, and Informal Approaches in Prosocial Crisis Communication while Dealing with Refugees from Conflict Areas


  • Aurelia Ana Vasile University of Bucharest, Romania



formal, non-formal, informal, prosocial communication, social media


The way formal organisations (governmental), non-formal (non-governmental) organisations, and informal citizen communication deal with social crisis pro-socially, that is, to the benefit of others, accounts for some characteristics that are worth fathoming in order to create the framework for the development of better communication strategies and better and faster prosocial reaction within socially challenging crisis contexts. Crisis communication has been tackled in public relations mostly with regard to governmental and nongovernmental organisations, whilst citizen informal communication has not been a matter of PR scientific focus so far, and neither has a comparison between these ways to communicate been approached for that matter. As speed is key in communication, and mostly within a refugee crisis, a double fold quantitative and qualitative analysis of the communication content and strategies used by key social actors in a hub-country of refugee reception like Romania in the emergency context created by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine may provide useful scientific information to generate consequent strategic improvements. This content analysis methodological approach on communication in the social media and on websites of such various outlets (the Facebook pages and groups of the Romanian Red Cross, UNICEF, Romanian Government, the “Uniţi pentru Ucraina” group, the Romanian government, UNICEF and Red Cross websites) from 24th February 2022, the beginning of the conflict in Ukraine, to the moment, allows intriguing conclusions about the effectiveness, timeliness, and constancy in communicating support in times of social crisis within a prosocial approach in Romania to receiving refugees from the conflict areas in Ukraine.

Author Biography

Aurelia Ana Vasile, University of Bucharest, Romania

Ph.D. Assoc. Prof., College of Journalism and Communication Studies, University of Bucharest, Romania


Bennett, W. L., & Segerberg, A. (2012). The Logic of Connective Action. Communication and Society, 15(5), 739-768.

Bequiri, G. (2017). The Importance of Communication Skills in Business.

Bhamare, C. (2018). Effects of Social Media on Communication Skills.

Bolton, R.N., Parasuraman, A., Hoefnagels, A., Migchels, N., Kabadayi, S., Gruber, T., Komarova Loureiro, Y., & Solnet, D. (2013). Understanding Generation Y and their use of social media: a review and research agenda. Journal of Service Management, 24(3), 245-267.

Brosdahl, D. J., & Carpenter, J. M. (2011). Shopping Orientations of US Males: A Generational Cohort Comparison. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 18, 548-554.

Chavez, C.A., Olan, C., Carandang, C.A., Fabros, W., Pesimo, J., & Pitao, C. (2020). Social Media Usage on Effective Communication Skills of Grade 12 Fidelis Senior High Students.

Coombs, P.H. (1968). The World Educational Crisis: A Systems Analysis. Oxford University Press.

De Graaf, R., & Van der Vossen, R. (2013). Bits versus Brains in Content Analysis. Comparing the Advantages and Disadvantages of Manual and Automated Methods for Content Analysis. Communications, 38(4), 433-443.

Dib, C.Z. (1987). Formal, Non-formal and Informal Education: Concepts, Applicability. Cooperative Networks in Physics Education - Conference Proceedings 173, pp. 300-315. American Institute of Physics, New York.

Eisenberg, N. (1982). The Development of Prosocial Behaviour. Elsevier Inc.All.

Eisenberg, N., & Fabes, R. A. (1998). Prosocial Development. In W. Damon, & N. Eisenberg (Eds.), Handbook of Child Psychology: Fifth Edition, Vol. 3: Social, Emotional and Personality Development (pp. 701-778). John Wiley & Sons.

Entman, R. M. (1993). Framing: Towards Clarification of a Fractured Paradigm. Journal of Communication, 43(4), 51–58.

Euajarusphan, A. (2021). Online Social Media Usage Behaviour, Attitude, Satisfaction, and Online Social Media Literacy of Generation X, Generation Y, and Generation Z. PSAKU International Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, 10(2), 44 - 58.

Greener, S., & Crick, N. R. (1999). Normative Beliefs about Prosocial Behavior in Middle Childhood: What Does It Mean to Be Nice?. Social Development, 8(3), 349–363.

Hartijasti, Y. (2013). Exploring the Motivation in Using Facebook: A Comparative Study between Generation X and Generation Y in Indonesia. Journal of Information Technology Applications and Management, 20(1), 53-66.

Hoon, H.N. (2020). Towards a Synthesis of Formal, Non-formal and Informal Pedagogies in Popular Music Learning. Research Studies in Music Education, 42(1), 56-76.

Horton, D., & Wohl, R. (2016). Mass Communication and Parasocial Interaction: Observation on intimacy at a distance. Psychiatry, 19(3), 215–229.

Jenkins, P. (2011). Formal and Informal Music Educational Practices. Philosophy of Music Education Review, 19(2), 179-197.

Jones, Q., Ravid, G., & Rafaeli, S. (2004). Information Overload and the Message Dynamics of Online Interaction Spaces. Information Systems Research, 15(2), 194-210.

Palfrey, J., & Gasser, U. (2008). Born Digital: Understanding the First Generation of Digital Natives. Basic Books.

Perse, E., & Rubin, R. (1989). Attribution in Social and Parasocial Relationships. Communication Research, 16(1), 59-77.

Prensky, M. (2001). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. On the Horizon, 9(5), 1-6.

Rubin, A. (1984). Ritualized and Instrumental Television Viewing. Journal of Communication, 34(3), 67–77.

Rubin, R., & McHugh, M.P. (2009). Development of Parasocial Interaction Relationships. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 31(3), 279-292.

Schlosser, A. E. (2005). Posting versus Lurking: Communication in a Multiple Audience Context. Journal of Consumer Research, 32(2), 260-265.

Shao, G. (2009). Understanding the appeal of user-generated media: A Uses and Gratification Perspective. Internet Research, 19(1), 7-25.




How to Cite

Vasile, A. A. . (2023). Formal, Non-formal, and Informal Approaches in Prosocial Crisis Communication while Dealing with Refugees from Conflict Areas. BRAIN. Broad Research in Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience, 14(1), 157-174.

Publish your work at the Scientific Publishing House LUMEN

It easy with us: publish now your work, novel, research, proceeding at Lumen Scientific Publishing House

Send your manuscript right now