Psycho-Motor Skills in Swimming Among Children: Gender Differences


  • Renato Gabriel Petrea “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iasi, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Toma Cozma, 3, 700554, Iasi, Romania
  • Cristina Elena Moraru “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iasi, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Toma Cozma, 3, 700554, Iasi, Romania,(ORCID ID: 0000-0001-6087-8980);
  • Oana Mihaela Rusu “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iasi, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Toma Cozma, 3, 700554, Iasi, Romania. (ORCID ID: 0000-0002-7364-6473);
  • Cristian Mihail Rus Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iasi, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Toma Cozma, 3, 700554, Iasi, Romania, (ORCID ID: 0000-0002-1781-3871)
  • Pia Simona Fagaras ”George Emil Palade” University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Gheorghe Marinescu, 38, Tirgu Mures, Mures, 540142, Romania; (ORCID ID: 0000-0001-9686-4871)
  • Florentina Cristea ”Dunărea de Jos” University of Galati, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, 800003, Galati, Romania; ORCID ID: 0009-0000-9125-7597;



psychomotor behaviors, swimming, children, gender


Psychomotricity is a broad term that encompasses different approaches to bodily action to support children and adolescents to reach their highest motor and cognitive potential. The aim of the study was to highlight gender differences in the manifestation of psychomotor behaviors in 8–9-year-old children who practice sports swimming. The subjects (N=52, 26 males, 26 females) are children aged 8.0-9.11 years (M = 8.80; SD = ±0.65) who practice swimming in one of the swimming pools of a city in Romania. They were tested, using specific instruments, to assess the level of manual dexterity, body schema, hand laterality, body balance, body balance on water/buoyancy, general coordination. For four of the variables (manual dexterity, body schema, hand laterality and spatial orientation) no statistically significant differences were found, while for the other three (body balance, body balance on water and general coordination) statistically significant differences were recorded. The results indicate differences between the two genders, girls in this age group who practice swimming having more developed psychomotor skills compared to boys.


Albu, A. & Albu, C. (1999). Psihomotricitate. Iași: Ed. Spiru Haret, Romania.

Bair, W. N., Kiemel, T., Jeka, J. J., Clark, J. E. (2007). Development of multisensory reweighting for posture control in children. Exp Brain Res, 183(4), 435–446.

Barela, J. A., Jeka, J. J., Clark, J. E. (2003). Postural control in children. Coupling to dynamic somatosensory information. Exp Brain Res, 150(4), 434–442.

Battaglia, G., Giustino, V., Tabacchi, G., Lanza, M., Schena, F., Biino, V., Giuriato, M., Gallotta, M.C., Guidetti, L., Baldari, C., Gennaro, A., Palma, A., Bellafiore, M. (2021) Interrelationship Between Age, Gender, and Weight Status on Motor Coordination in Italian Children and Early Adolescents Aged 6-13 Years Old. Front Pediatr, 9:738294. doi: 10.3389/fped.2021.738294.

Bălănean, D. M., Negrea, C., Bota, E., Petracovschi, S., Almăjan-Guță, B. (2022). Optimizing the development of space-temporal orientation in physical education and sports lessons for students aged 8–11 years. Children, 9(9), 1299.

Berruezo Adelantado, P. P. (2008). El contenido de la psicomotricidad. Reflexiones para la delimitación de suámbitoteórico y práctico. RevistaInteruniversitaria de Formación del Profesorado, 62(22), 19-34.

Blakemore, S. J. (2008). The social brain in adolescence. Nat Rev Neurosci,9, 267-277.

Bondi, D., Prete, G., Malatesta, G., Robazza, C. (2020) Laterality in children: Evidence for task-dependent lateralization of motor functions. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 17(18), 6705. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17186705.

Binet, A. &Vaschide, N. (1897). Expériences de force musculaire et de fond chez les jeunes garçons. L'annéepsychologique, 4, 15-63. DOI:

Bruton, M. & O’dwyer, N. (2018). Synergies in coordination: a comprehensive overview of neural, computational, and behavioral approaches. J. Neurophysiol, 120, 2761-2774. doi: 10.1152/jn.00052.2018.

Capol, M. & Walther, L. (1953) Contribution à l'étude de l'habiletémanuelle. L'annéepsychologique, 53(1), 35-58. doi:

Corballis, M. C. (2019.) Evolution of cerebral asymmetry. Prog Brain Res, 250,153-178. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2019.04.041.

Corbin, C. B., Pangrazi, R. P., Franks, B. D. (2000). Definitions: health, fitness, and physical activity. Pres. Counc. Phys. Fit. Sports Res, 3, 1-11.

Daneshjoo, A, Mokhtar A. H, Rahnama N, Yusof A (2012) The effects of comprehensive warm-up programs on proprioception, static and dynamic balance on male soccer players. PLoS ONE, 7(12). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051568.

Denche-Zamorano Á, Mendoza-Muñoz M, Barrios-Fernandez S, Parraca J. A. (2022). Bibliometric Analysis of psychomotricity research trends: the current role of childhood. Children, 9(12), 1836.

Epuran, M. (2013). Motricitate şi psihism în activităţile corporale. Prolegomene la o metateorie a activităţilor corporale, ludice, gimnice, agonistice, recreative, compensatorii. Volumul 2, București: Ed. FEST.

Fauche, S. (1994). Les paradigmes de la psychomotricité. Revue française de pédagogie, 107, 97-107. doi:

Făgăraș, P. S., Rus, C. M., Vanvu, G. (2014). The Importance of psychomotricity in developing of perceptual-motor Structures. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 149, 317-320.

Gherghuț, A. (2013). Sinteze de psihopedagogie specială. Ghid pentru concursuri și examene de obținere a gradelor didactice. Iași: Ed. Polirom.

Gooderham, S. E. & Bryden, P. J. (2014). Does your dominant hand become less dominant with time? The effects of aging and task complexity on hand selection. Developmental Psychobiology, 56(3), 537-546. doi:10.1002/dev.21123.

Haggard, P. & Wolpert, D. (2004). Disorders of body scheme. Higher-Order Motor Disorders, 1-7.

Hrysomallis, C. (2007) Relationship between balance ability, training and sports injury risk. Sports Med, 37(6), 547-56. doi: 10.2165/00007256-200737060-00007.

Junaid, K. A. & Fellowes, S. (2006). Gender differences in the attainment of motor skills on the movement assessment battery for children. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 26(1-2), 5-11. doi:10.1080/j006v26n01_02.

Knobbe, T. J., Kremer, D., Eisenga, M. F., Corpeleijn, E., Annema, C., Spikman, J. M., Navis, G., Berger, S. P., Bakker, S. J. L. (2022). Hand dexterity, daily functioning and health-related quality of life in kidney transplant recipients. Sci Rep, 12.

Kuloor, H. (2021). Assessment of Dexterity on sports persons and non-sports persons using MMDT. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Educational Research, 10(7), 86-88. DOI:

Lafon, R. (1969). Vocabulaire de psychopedagogie et de psychiatrie infantile. Paris: Ed. P.U.F.

León, M. P., González-Martí, I., Contreras-Jordán, O. R. (2021) What Do Children Think of Their Perceived and Ideal Bodies? Understandings of Body Image at Early Ages: A Mixed Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 18(9), 4871. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18094871.

Lopes, V. P., Stodden, D. F., Bianchi, M. M., Maia, J. A. R., Rodrigues, L. P. (2012). Correlation between BMI and motor coordination in children. J. Sci. Med. Sport, 15, 38-43. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2011.07.005.

Matsumiya, K. (2022). Multiple representations of the body schema for the same body part. Proc Natl Acad Sci, 119(4), 1-9. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2112318119.

McGuine, T.A., Greene, J.J., Best, T., Leverson, G. (2000) Balance as a predictor of ankle injuries in high school basketball players. Clin J Sport Med, 10(4), 239-44. doi: 10.1097/00042752-200010000-00003. PMID: 11086748.

McLean, S. P. & Hinrichs, R. N (1998). Sex difference in the center of buoyancy location of competitive swimmers. Journal of Sports Science, 16(4), 373–383. DOI: 10.1080/02640419808559365.

McLean S.P. & Hinrichs R.N. (2000). Influence of arm position and lung volume on the center of buoyancy of competitive swimmers. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 71(2), 182-189, DOI: 10.1080/02701367.2000.10608896.

McLean, S. P. & Hinrichs, R. N. (2008) Sex differences in the centre of buoyancy location of competitive swimmers, Journal of Sports Sciences, 16(4), 373-383, DOI: 10.1080/02640419808559365.

Michel, G. F., Nelson, E. L., Babik, I., Campbell, J. M., Marcinowski, E. C. (2013). Multiple trajectories in the developmental psychobiology of human handedness. Adv Child Dev Behav, 45, 227-260. doi: 10.1016/b978-0-12-397946-9.00009-9.

Mota, W.S., Valente, J.P., Costa, E.G., Silva, P.R.S., Rocha, H.O., Dias, H.S.R., Dias, G.N., Ferreira, J.V., Lobato, F.S., Pamplona, V.M.S., Barbosa, B.S.B., Silva, W.L.P., Farias, F.R., Bonfim, A.P. (2020). Psychomotricity and adversities in the teaching of early childhood education. Research, Society and Development, 9(12). DOI:

Ota, T., Yoshida, K., Tase, T., Sato, K., Tanaka, M., Saito, A., ... & Furukawa, H. (2018). Influence of 3D-printing conditions on physical properties of hydrogel objects. Mechanical engineering journal, 5(1), 17-00538.

Parma, V., Brasselet, R., Zoia, S., Bulgheroni, M., Castiello, U. (2017). The origin of human handedness and its role in pre-birth motor control. Scientific Reports, 7, 16804,

Petrea, R. G., Moraru, C. E., Popovici, I. M., Știrbu, I. C., Radu, L. E., Chirazi, M., Rus, C. M., Oprean, A., Rusu, O. (2023). Influences of psychomotor behaviors on learning swimming styles in 6–9-year-old children. Children, 10(8), 1339.

Pieron, H. (2001). Vocabularulpsihologiei. București: Ed. UniversulEnciclopedic.

Profeta, V. L. & Turvey, M. T. (2018). Bernstein’s levels of movement construction: a contemporary perspective. Hum. Mov. Sci., 57, 111-133. doi: 10.1016/j.humov.2017.11.013.

Radu, D. I. &UliciGh. (2002). Evaluareaşieducareapsihomotricităţii. București: Ed. FundaţieiHumanitas.

Rosa, H. R. (2006). Teste Goodenough-Harris e indicadores maturacionais de Koppitz para o desenho da figura humana: estudo normativo para crianças de São Paulo. São Paulo. doi:10.11606/T.47.2006.tde-01102006-162329.

Rosa, H. R., Boccato Alves, I. C. (2014). Estudonormativo do Teste Goodenough-Harris emcriançasnacidade de São Paulo. Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia, 34(87), 336-351.

Schedler, S., Kiss, R., & Muehlbauer, T. (2019). Age and sex differences in human balance performance from 6-18 years of age: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS one, 14(4), e0214434.

Șunei, M. C., Petracovschi, S., Bota, E., Almajan-Guță, B., Nagel, A. (2022) Relationship between body schema and scholar maturity: A study from the National College of Banat in Timisoara, Romania. Children, 9(9), 1369. doi: 10.3390/children9091369.

Yanai, T. & Wilson, B. D. (2008). How does buoyancy influence front-crawl performance? Exploring the assumptions. Sports Technol, 1, 89-99.




How to Cite

Petrea, R. G., Moraru, C. E. ., Rusu, O. M. ., Rus, C. M. ., Fagaras, P. S. ., & Cristea, F. . (2023). Psycho-Motor Skills in Swimming Among Children: Gender Differences. BRAIN. Broad Research in Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience, 14(3), 343-360.

Publish your work at the Scientific Publishing House LUMEN

It easy with us: publish now your work, novel, research, proceeding at Lumen Scientific Publishing House

Send your manuscript right now