Nurse's Leadership Challenges in Primary Health Care: A Focus Group Analysis in Albania


  • Fatjona Kamberi Assoc. Prof. Dr. in Health Sciences, Lecturer University of Vlora “Ismail Qemali”, Faculty of Health, Research Centre of Public Health, Vlora
  • Sajmira Adëraj Ph.D. candidate, Health for All - A project of the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation SDC, Tirana



Primary health care, nursing, leadership, challenges, focus group, Albania


For health and care systems to succeed in the future, primary head nurses must demonstrate leadership. A focus group discussion was used to assess the primary head nurses' leadership abilities in 2022 in Albania. The focus group was composed of 12 primary head health care nurses, two men and ten women, with a mean age of 40 ± (SD) years old. Eight participants were charged with the duty of head nurse for more than five years, while seven participants were in the position of paid head nurse for more than five years. The majority of nurses reported they lack a clearly defined, written job description relevant to the position. Additionally, they stated that they lacked a reference work plan based on which to organize and coordinate the associated healthcare service activities. Participants indicated that the role of the head nurse in daily practice is more focused on the work as a service nurse than as a head nurse. The majority of nurses reported having never received training expressly related to their role as head nurses. The most crucial aspects of the head nurse position were efficient planning and organization of work, vaccination, infrastructure improvement, and the effective use of human resources. The results of this study can be used by head nurses in primary healthcare settings to address and deal with problems in their leadership roles. The findings can also be used by policymakers when developing new regulations or guidelines for nursing leadership competencies. In addition to functioning in a crisis situation, nurse leaders have to demonstrate their capacity for effective leadership and transparent communication. In this regard, training is recommended.


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How to Cite

Kamberi, F. ., & Adëraj, S. . (2023). Nurse’s Leadership Challenges in Primary Health Care: A Focus Group Analysis in Albania. Eastern-European Journal of Medical Humanities and Bioethics, 6(1), 13-31.

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