The Modern State and “Death of god”: Absurdity and Chaos in Ibuse’s Black Rain


  • Andrew Nyongesa Saint Paul's University, Kenya
  • Maurice Simbili Kenyatta University



Black Rain, Friedrich Nietzsche, The Death of God, Postmodernism


The birth of modern state with her technological advancements was hailed as a new dawn for humankind. The merits of enlightenment had finally been realized and the ensuing scientific inventions would finally perpetuate the entry of humanity towards a universal culture. The problems such as disease, ignorance and poverty that had perennially affected humanity would be forgotten given that science and industrialization had heightened human reason and production. In spite of this grand narrative, emerging voices have singled out the failures of modernism and the narrative project. They have decried modernist tendencies to mechanize humanity and eradicate the individual’s creativity and morality. Through coercion and conformity, the modern state replaces individual revaluation of culture and perpetuates violence and intellectual passivity hence the demise of progress. This article is a postmodernist critique of modernism and her grand narrative with reference to Ibuse (1970), Black Rain. It shows how the ideals of modernism can only lead humanity to inhumanity, violence and chaos. The ideas of Friedrich Nietzsche and Martin Heidegger will form a theoretical basis of interpretation. This is an analytical study that proceeds through close textual reading of primary and secondary texts.

Author Biographies

Andrew Nyongesa, Saint Paul's University, Kenya

Dr. Andrew Nyongesa is a lecturer at Saint Paul’s University (Kenya) and a writer of fiction. Some of his published works are The Water Cycle (2018), Many in One and Other Stories (2019) and The Armageddon and Other Stories all of which are based on postcolonialism and ecocriticism. His latest paper is “Conversation with the “other”: style and Pathology in Selected African Novels,” by Journal of African Languages and Literary Studies and “Humanity and Mother Nature: Ecological Reading of Ole Kulet’s Blossoms of the Savannah” by Kenya Studies Review. His research interests are postcolonialism, psychological criticism, Black Aesthetics and Eco-criticism.

Maurice Simbili, Kenyatta University

Maurice Simbili is a creative writer and Assistant lecturer of Literature at Kenyatta University . His passion for fiction is evident through publication of “Soweto” in Mugubi and Nyongesa (2021), Say my Name and Other Stories from Home and Away. Simbili is PhD researcher based at Kenyatta University (Nairobi, Kenya)


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How to Cite

Nyongesa, A., & Simbili, M. (2022). The Modern State and “Death of god”: Absurdity and Chaos in Ibuse’s Black Rain. Logos Universality Mentality Education Novelty: Social Sciences, 11(1), 68-83.

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