The Functionality of the Principle of Non-Discrimination on Grounds of Gender, Race, Religion and Sexual Orientation in the Postmodern Society
Keywords:principle of non-discrimination, discrimination on grounds of gender, racial discrimination, religious discrimination, discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation
Discrimination in the postmodern society can have many different causes and can affect people of different racial, ethnic, national or social backgrounds, such as communities of Asian or African descent, Roma people, indigenous peoples, Aboriginal people and people of different castes. Discrimination can also refer to people of different cultural, linguistic or religious backgrounds, people with disabilities or the elderly. Moreover, people can be discriminated because of their sexual orientation or preferences. Gender-based discrimination is also common, despite progress in many countries. Women are also particularly prone to violent and abusive practices, and therefore often suffer from a double discrimination, both because of their race or origin and because of their gender, which is why feminist literature in recent years points to new acts or forms of discrimination against women. A major problem in the postmodern world is the discrimination that many people are subjected to, especially women and children, because they live in extreme poverty. These circumstances may force them to migrate and further contribute to a conceptual or social contamination, that may aggravate discriminatory tendencies in the societies where they migrate. The article aims to theoretically analyse the degree of functionality that the principle of non-discrimination based on gender, race, religion and sexual orientation has in the contemporary, postmodern, individualistic society
Adejugbe, A., & Adejugbe, A. (2018). Women and discrimination in the workplace: A Nigerian perspective. SSRN Electronic Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3244971
Anaya, S. J. (2009). International human rights and indigenous peoples: The move toward the multicultural state. Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Law, 21(13), 9-34. https://ssrn.com/abstract=1485138
Banting, K., & Kymlicka, W. (2010). Canadian multiculturalism: Global anxieties and local debates. British Journal of Canadian Studies, 23(1), 43-72. https://doi.org/10.3828/bjcs.2010.3
Bell, L. (2005). Women-led firms and the gender gap in top executive jobs. https://ssrn.com/abstract=773964
Bengoa, J. (2000). Existence and recognition of minorities. UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/AC.5/2000/WP.2. https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/413953
Bond, J. (2003). International intersectionality: A theoretical and pragmatic exploration of women's international human rights violations. Emory Law Journal, 52(71). https://ssrn.com/abstract=2109878
Cao, L. (2004). The ethnic question in law and development. Michigan Law Review, 102(6), 1044. https://doi.org/10.2307/4141938
Capotorti, F. (1977). Study on the rights of persons belonging to ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities. https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/134362/
Castronova, E. (2003). The price of 'man' and 'woman': A hedonic pricing model of avatar attributes in a synthethic. https://ssrn.com/abstract=415043
Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. (2009). Opinion of the Committee on the elimination of racial discrimination under article 14 of the international convention on the elimination of all forms of racial discrimination. https://adsdatabase.ohchr.org/IssueLibrary/CERD_Communication%2041%202008_Ahmed%20Farah%20Jama%20v%20Denmark.pdf
Cordoneanu, I. (2004). O radiografie necesară: Ortodoxie şi globalizare [A necessary radiography: Orthodoxy and globalisation]. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies, 7, 182-191. http://www.jsri.ro/old/html%20version/index/no_7/ioncordoneanu-articol.htm
Council of Europe's Committee of Ministers. (2008). White paper on intercultural dialogue - Living together as equals in dignity. https://www.coe.int/en/web/education-and-religious-diversity/resources/-/asset_publisher/fQaSCQ5K0u4n/content/white-paper-on-intercultural-dialogue-living-together-as-equals-in-dignity-2010-?inheritRedirect=false
Directorate-General for Justice and Consumers of the European Commission, & European Network of Legal Experts in Gender Equality and Non-Discrimination. (2016, April 08). Intersectional discrimination in EU gender equality and non-discrimination law, http://ohrh.law.ox.ac.uk/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Intersectional-discrimination-in-EU-gender-equality-and-non-discrimination-law.pdf
Dougal, C., Gao, P., Mayew, W. J., & Parsons, C. A. (2018). What's in a (school) name? Racial discrimination in higher education bond markets. SSRN Electronic Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2727763
Dunbar-Ortiz, R., Dorough, D. S., Alfredsson, G., Swepston, L., & Wille, P. (Eds.). (2015). Indigenous peoples’ rights in international law: Emergence and application. Book in honor of Asbjørn Eide at eighty. https://www.iwgia.org/images/publications/0709_INDIGENOUS_PEOPLES_RIGHTS_2.pdf
Esteve-Volart, B. (2004). Gender discrimination and growth: Theory and evidence from India. https://ssrn.com/abstract=1127011
European Court of Human Rights. (1992). Van Raalte vs. Netherlands, application no. 20060/92. https://www.equalrightstrust.org/ertdocumentbank//Microsoft%20Word%20-%20Van%20Raalte%20v.%20Netherl.pdf
European Court of Human Rights. (1996). Salgueiro Da Silva Mouta vs. Portugal, application no. 33290/96. https://www.equalrightstrust.org/ertdocumentbank/Microsoft%20Word%20-%20Salgueiro%20Da%20Silva%20Mouta%20v%20Portugal%20_parental%20responsibility_.pdf
European Court of Human Rights. (1998). Petrovic vs. Austria, application no. 20458/92, judgement of 1998, March 27. https://www.equalrightstrust.org/content/ert-case-summary-petrovic-v-austria
European Court of Human Rights. (2012). Konstantin Markin vs. Russia, application no. 30078/06. https://www.womenslinkworldwide.org/files/gjo_echr_writtensubmissions_caseKonstantinevRussia_en.pdf
Falcetta S., & Johnson, P. (2018). Sexual orientation discrimination and article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights: Developing the protection of sexual minorities. European Law Review, 167-185. http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/127012/1/JohnsonFalcettaECHRSexualOrientationFINAL.pdf
Fălcuţă, C. L. (Coord.). (2011). Culegere de jurisprudenţă CEDO. Cauze recente împotriva României [Collection of ECHR jurisprudence. Recent cases against Romania] (2nd vol.). The European Institute from Romania.
Freud, S. (1927). The future of an illusion. The Penguin Freud Library.
Gafni, H., Marom, D., Robb, A., & Sade, O. (2019). Gender dynamics in crowdfunding (kickstarter): Evidence on entrepreneurs, investors, deals and taste-based discrimination. https://ssrn.com/abstract=2442954
Gersen, J. E., & Gersen, J. S. (2016). The sex bureaucracy. California Law Review, 881, 16-13. https://ssrn.com/abstract=2750143
Gurol, S. (2017, September 21). Challenging gender stereotyping before the ECtHR: Case of Carvalho Pinto v. Portugal. https://www.ejiltalk.org/challenging-gender-stereotyping-before-the-ecthr-case-of-carvalho-pinto-v-portugal/
Haigh, R., & Bowal, P. (2012, April 26). Whistleblowing and freedom of conscience: Towards a new legal analysis. https://digitalcommons.osgoode.yorku.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1315&context=clpe
Henson, C. C., & Dorasil, P. R. (2011). An empirical analysis of judging bias by sex, region and side. SSRN Electronic Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1768087
Inter-American Court of Human Rights. (1984). Inter-American Court of Human Rights advisory opinion oc-4/84 of january 19, 1984 proposed amendments to the naturalization provision of the constitution of costa rica requested by the government of Costa Rica. https://www.corteidh.or.cr/docs/opiniones/seriea_04_ing.pdf
International Federation for Human Rights. (2016). Admissibility of complaints before the African Court: Practical guide. https://www.refworld.org/pdfid/577cd89d4.pdf
Keller, P. (1998). Re-thinking ethnic and cultural rights in Europe. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, 18(1), 29–59. https://doi.org/10.1093/ojls/18.1.29
Kinley, D., Nolan, J., & Zerial, N. (2007). The politics of corporate social responsibility: Reflections on the United Nations human rights norms for corporations. Company and Securities Law Journal, 25(1), 30-42, 2007. https://ssrn.com/abstract=962981
Kymlicka, W. (2001). Politics in the vernacular, nationalism, multiculturalism, and citizenship. Oxford University Press.
Kymlicka, W. (2008). The Internationalization of minority rights. International Journal of Constitutional Law, 6(1), 1-32. https://doi.org/10.1093/icon/mom032
Kymlicka, W. (2011). Beyond the indigenous/minority dichotomy? https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321245845_Beyond_the_IndigenousMinority_Dichotomy
Lambrecht, A., & Tucker, C. E. (2018). Algorithmic bias? An empirical study into apparent gender-based discrimination in the display of STEM career ads. SSRN Electronic Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2852260
Loper, K. (2004). Race and equality: A study of ethnic minorities in Hong Kong's education system. SSRN Electronic Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1601276
McGarry, J., & O’Leary, B. (2007). Iraq’s Constitution of 2005: Liberal consociation as political prescription. https://www.polisci.upenn.edu/ppec/PPEC%20People/Brendan%20O'Leary/Brendan%20O'Leary%20Publications/Journal%20Articles/2007draftMcGarry%20and%20O'Leary,%20ICON.pdf
Medda-Windischer, R. (2014). Integration of new and old minorities in Europe: Different or similar policies and indicators? https://www.integrim.eu/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/MEDDA-integration-of-new-and-old-minirities.pdf
Mikkola, A. (2005). Role of gender equality in development - A literature review. SSRN Electronic Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.871461
Morawa, A. H. E. (2010). Minority languages and public administration: A comment on issues raised in Diergaardt v. Namibia. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1596118
Murdoch, J. (2007). Freedom of thought, conscience and religion. A guide to the implementation of article 9 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Human Rights Handbooks, 9. https://rm.coe.int/168007ff4f
Human Rights Committee. (1985). Ibrahima Gueye et al. vs. France, communication no. 196/1985. http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/undocs/session35/196-1985.html
Human Rights Committee. (1992). Länsman et al. vs Finland, communication no. 511/1992. https://www.escr-net.org/caselaw/2006/lansman-et-al-v-finland-communication-no-5111992-un-gaor-52nd-session-un-doc-ccpr-c-52d
Human Rights Committee. (1997). Diergaardt et al. vs. Namibia, communication no. 760/1997. http://www.bayefsky.com/pdf/100_namibia760.pdf
Human Rights Committee. (1998). Koptova vs. Slovakia, communication no. 13/1998. http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/464937c637ce5c0ec12569d20033a961?Ope%ndocument
Penninx, R., & Garcés-Mascareñas, B. (2016) The concept of integration as an analytical tool and as a policy concept. In B. Garcés-Mascareñas & R. Penninx (Eds.), Integration processes and policies in Europe (pp. 11-29). Springer.
Robert P. Swierenga – Publications. (2007). https://www.swierenga.com/ACVRbusinessman2007.html
Ruiz Vieytez, E. J. (2007). Diversity, immigration and minorities within a human rights framework. In E. J. Ruiz Vieytez & R. Dunbar (Eds.), Human rights and diversity: New challenges for plural societies (pp. 19-34). University of Deusto.
Sawyer, W. (2019, December 19). Youth confinement: The whole pie 2019. https://www.prisonpolicy.org/reports/youth2019.html
Schwab, S. J. (1999). Employment discrimination. SSRN Electronic Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.150112
Shetty, S., & Hans, V. B. (2015). Role of education in women empowerment and development: Issues and impact. SSRN Electronic Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2665898
Smith, S. D. (1991). The rise and fall of religious freedom in constitutional discourse. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 140(1), 149. https://doi.org/10.2307/3312322
Supreme Court of Canada. (1983). Ballantyne vs. Edwards, judgement of 1983, May 17. https://scc-csc.lexum.com/scc-csc/scc-csc/en/item/8576/index.do
Tabet, S. (2013). Zygmunt Bauman et la société liquid [Zygmunt Bauman and the liquid society]. Sciences Humanies. https://www.scienceshumaines.com/zygmunt-bauman-et-la-societe-liquide_fr_31678.html
The Labor and Employment Law Committee, The Committee on Sex and Law, & The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Rights Committee. (2011). The employment non-discrimination act. The Association of the Bar of the City Of New York.
Tushevska, B. (2015). The non-discrimination principle through the concept of establishment of companies in European Union. SEEU Review, 11(1), 111-122. https://doi.org/10.1515/seeur-2015-0014
United Nations General Assembly. (1992, December 18). Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious or Linguistic Minorities. https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/minorities.aspx
United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner. (2012). International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. Selected decisions of the committee on the elimination of racial discrimination. https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/CERDSelectedDecisionsVolume1.pdf
Webber, M. (2005). The protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. Routledge.
Yannoulatos A. (2003). Ortodoxia şi problemele lumii contemporane [Orthodoxy and the problems of the contemporary world] (G. Mândrilă & C. Coman, Trans.), Bizantină.
Zaccaroni, G. (2018). Non-discrimination on the ground of religion: A fundamental element of the EU constitutional legal order? SSRN Electronic Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3296239
Ziegler, K. S. (2007). Cultural heritage and human rights. https://ssrn.com/abstract=1002620
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 The Authors & LUMEN Publishing House
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant this journal right of first publication, with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work, with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g. post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g. in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as an earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
Postmodern Openings Journal has an Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs