Prediction of Perceived Stress Based on Self-concept and Emotional Intelligence in Females with HIV/AIDS


  • Maryam Nasir Dehghan Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
  • Mansoureh Karimzadeh Department of Preschool Education, Pediatric Neurorehabilitation Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Robab Teymouri Pediatric Neurorehabilitation Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Mohammad Rostami Department of Counseling, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran



HIV/AIDS, perceived stress, self-concept, emotional intelligence.


Background - Paying attention to the psychological issues of patients with HIV/AIDS, improving their quality-oflife (QoL), and promotion of mental health in such patients are of great importance. The present study aimed at predicting the perceived stress based on self-percept and emotional intelligence in patients with HIV/AIDS. Methods - The population of the present descriptive, correlation study was all females diagnosed with HIV/AIDS of which 90 subjects selected by the convenience sampling method were evaluated. The data collection tools were the Cohen perceived stress scale (PSS), the Rogers self-concept scale, and the Bar–On emotional intelligence questionnaire; the stepwise regression analysis was used to analyze data. Results - Results of the present study indicated a negative and significant relationship between the perceived stress with self-concept and emotional intelligence; also, emotional intelligence could better predict the level of perceived stress than self-concept. Positive selfconcept and higher levels of emotional intelligence, followed by the use of coping strategies, may cause lower levels of perceived stress in such patients. Conclusion - It seems that the findings can indicate that the emotional intelligence can predict perceived stress better than self-concept.


Abachi, A., & Behravan, H. (2013a). The analysis of stigma impact on quality of life in patients with HIV/AIDS: a phenomenological study.

Abachi, A., & Behravan, H. (2013b). The analysis of stigma impact on quality of life in patients with HIV/AIDS: A phenomenological study. Journal of Qualitative Research in Health Sciences, 2(2), 158-172.

Abbasiyan, L., Mo'eyyediniya, S. I., Naaserirad, M., Tavakkol, M., & Abbasi, M. (2015). Lived experience of Iranian women with HIV/AIDS and acknowledgment of their social rights: a phenomenological hermeneutical study. Razi Journal of Medical Sciences, 22(133), 41-50.

Bar-On, R. (1997). The emotional intelligence inventory (EQ-I): Technical manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems. Bar-On, R. (2000). Emotional and social intelligence: Insights from the Emotional Intelligence Inventory (EQ-I). Handbook of emotional intelligence. San Francisco, USA: Jossey-Bass.

Basavaraj, K. H., Navya, M. A., & Rashmi, R. (2010). Quality of life in HIV/AIDS. Indian Journal of Sexually Transmmited Diseases and AIDS, 31(2), 75-80. doi:10.4103/0253-7184.74971

Behravan, H., Noghani, M., & Abaachi, A. (2011). Social process and concequences of labeling patients with UIV/AIDS case study: the city of Mashhad. Quarterly Iranian Journal of Sociology, 12(3), 143-166.

Bradbury, T., & Graves, J. (Eds.). (2005). Emotional intelligence (skills and tests). Tehran, Iran: Savalan Publications.

Bradbury, T., & Greaves, A. (2007). The emotional intelligence (skills and tests) (M. Ganji, Trans.). Tehran, Iran: Savalan Publications.

Brandt, R. (2009). The mental health of people living with HIV/AIDS in Africa: a systematic review. African Journal of AIDS Research, 8(2), 123-133. doi:10.2989/ajar.2009.

Campbell, J. D., Trapnell, P. D., Heine, S. J., Katz, I. M., Lavallee, L. F., & Lehman, D. R. (1996). Self-concept clarity: Measurement, personality correlates, and cultural boundaries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(1), 141. doi:10.1037//0022-3514.70.1.141

Cederbaum, J. A., Wenzel, S. L., Gilbert, M. L., & Chereji, E. (2013). The HIV risk reduction needs of homeless women in Los Angeles. Womens Health Issues, 23(3), e167-172. doi:10.1016/j.whi.2013.01.004

Ciarrochi, J., Forgas, J. P., & Mayer, J. D. (2001). Emotional intelligence in everyday life: A scientific inquiry. Abingdon, UK: Psychology Press.

Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24(4), 385-396. doi:10.2307/2136404

Cohen, S., & Williamson, G. (1988). Perceived stress in a probability sample of the US In S. Spacapam & S. Oskamp (Eds.), The social psychology of health: Claremont symposium on applied social psychology (pp. 31-67). Newbury Park, USA: Sage.

Dehshiri, G. R. (2003). Normalization of Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I) to assess the various aspects of intelligence among Tehran Universities students. Master's thesis in psychology. Tehran, Iran: Allameh Tabatabaei University, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences.

Dunn, N., Shields, N., Taylor, N. F., & Dodd, K. J. (2009). Comparing the self concept of children with cerebral palsy to the perceptions of their parents. Disability and Rehabilitation, 31(5), 387-393. doi:10.1080/13682820802052125

Fattahi, N., Gheysarani, S., Rezaei Rad, Z., Yousefi, H., Mohammad Rezaie, A., Zakeri, H., & Deylami, L. (2015). The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy on reducing emotional problems in women with AIDS. Paper presented at the International Conference on Research in the Behavioral and Social Sciences. Istanbul, Turkey.

Feizollahi, J., Asgari, S., & Khosravipour, N. (2015). Comparison of perceived social support among drug users with HIV, non-drug users and people living with HIV healthy. Rooyesh-e-Ravanshenasi, 4(2), 23-36.

Feng, M. C., Feng, J. Y., Yu, C. T., Chen, L. H., Yang, P. H., Shih, C. C., & Lu, P. L. (2015). Stress, needs, and quality of life of people living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS in Taiwan. The Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences, 31(9), 485-492. doi:10.1016/j.kjms.2015.07.003

Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1986). Stress processes and depressive symptomatology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95(2), 107. doi:10.1037//0021-843x.95.2.107

Goleman, D. (Ed.). (2004). Emotional intelligence. Tehran, Iran: Roshd Publications.

Goleman, D. P. (1995). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ for character, health and lifelong achievement. New York, USA: Bantam Books.

Habibi, Z., Khosro Javid, M., & Hosein Khanzadeh, A. A. (2014). Efficacy of emotional intelligence training on coping strategies with stress in individual with visual impairments. Journal of Holistic Nursing and Midwifery, 24(1), 21- 29.

Hansen, N. B., Harrison, B., Fambro, S., Bodnar, S., Heckman, T. G., & Sikkema, K. J. (2013). The structure of coping among older adults living with HIV/AIDS and depressive symptoms. Journal of Health Psychology, 18(2), 198-211. doi:10.1177/1359105312440299

Hassanzadeh, R., Hosseini, S. H., & Moraadi, Z. (2005). Relationship between total self-concept and academic performance of students. Knowledge & Research in Applied Psychology, 7(24), 1-18.

Hatefiniya, M. R. (2011). Study of the relationship between social support and general health of patients with AIDS (HIV) and its comparison with normal people in Shiraz. Master's thesis. Tehran, Iran: Allameh Tabataba'ei University.

Hooman, H. A. (2005). Structural equation modeling using laserl software (1st ed.). Tehran, Iran: Samt Publications.

Hosseinzadeh, M., & Farrokhi, A. (2003). Comparison of self-concept of athletic and non-athlete students in Gonabad high schools. Horizon of Medical Sciences, 9(1), 82-87.

Hossienzadeh, A., Alizadeh, S., Khademi, A., & Mosarezaie Moqaddam, A. (2015). Comparison of personality traits and emotional intelligence in female and male patients with multiple sclerosis. Journal of Urmia Medical Sciences University, 26(1), 81-91.

Illangasekare, S. L., Burke, J. G., Chander, G., & Gielen, A. C. (2014). Depression and social support among women living with the substance abuse, violence, and HIV/AIDS syndemic: a qualitative exploration. Womens Health Issues, 24(5), 551-557. doi:10.1016/j.whi.2014.05.004

Johnson, S. J., Batey, M., & Holdsworth, L. (2009). Personality and health: The mediating role of trait emotional intelligence and work locus of control. Personality and Individual Differences, 47(5), 470-475. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2009.04.025

Kalichman, S. C., & Kalichman, M. O. (2016). HIV-related stress and life chaos mediate the association between poverty and medication adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 23(4), 420-430. doi:10.1007/s10880-016-9481-8

Khodabakhshi Koolaee, A., Hosseinian, S., & Falsafinejad, M. R. (2014). Comparing of coping stress strategies and self –concept between Married educated women with job and without job in 2013. Journal of Career & Organizational Counseling, 6(18), 9-21. Kołodziej, J. (2016). Effects of stress on HIV infection progression. HIV & AIDS Review, 15(1), 13-16. doi:10.1016/j.hivar.2015.07.003

Levine, S. (2005). Stress: an historical perspective. In T. Steckler, N.H. Kalin & J.M.H.M. Reul (Eds.), Techniques in the Behavioral and Neural Sciences, 15(I) (pp. 3-23). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier. doi:10.1016/s0921- 0709(05)80004-5

Liu, L., Pang, R., Sun, W., Wu, M., Qu, P., Lu, C., & Wang, L. (2013). Functional social support, psychological capital, and depressive and anxiety symptoms among people living with HIV/AIDS employed full-time. BMC Psychiatry, 13, 324. doi:10.1186/1471-244x-13-324

Marino, B. S., Cassedy, A. E., Drotar, D., Wernovsky, G., Franklin, R., Brown, K., Rosenthal, D., Breidert, J., Riedel, M., Kazak, A., & Wray, J. (2012). Psychosocial morbidity factors mediate the relationship between heart disease complexity and lower quality of life. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 59(13), E773. doi:10.1016/s0735-1097(12)60774-8

Moattari, M., Soltani, A., Moosavinasab, M., & Ayatollahi, A. R. (2005). The effect of a short term course of problem solving on self-concept of nursing students at Shiraz Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery. Iranian Journal of Medical Education, 5(2), 147-155.

Moghanloo, R. A., Moghanloo, V. A., Babapour-Kheiroddin, J., Poursharifi, H., & Pishvaei, M. (2014). The effect of Group Hope Therapy on subjective wellbeing, acceptance and rumination in HIV+ patients. Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences 18(5), 265-274.

Mohnke, S., Erk, S., Schnell, K., Romanczuk-Seiferth, N., Schmierer, P., Romund, L., Garbusow, M., Wackerhagen, C., Ripke, S., Grimm, O., Haller, l., Witt, S. H., Degenhardt, F., Tost, H., Heinz, A., Meyer-Lindenberg, A., Walter, H. (2015). Theory of mind network activity is altered in subjects with familial liability for schizophrenia. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 11(2), 299-307. doi:10.1093/scan/nsv111

Mokhtari, z., Alipor, A., Hasanzadeh Pashang, S., & Exiri Fard, M. (2014). Effect of emotional intelligence training on physical health among heart patient's bed ridden. Pars of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, 12(2), 9-14. doi:10.29252/jmj.12.2.9

Naji, S. A., Abedi, H., & Sasani, L. (2014). The experience of social stigma in AIDS patients: A phenomenological study. Journal of Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, 20(4), 487-495.

Olley, B. O., Zeier, M. D., Seedat, S., & Stein, D. J. (2005). Post-traumatic stress disorder among recently diagnosed patients with HIV/AIDS in South Africa. AIDS Care, 17(5), 550-557. doi:10.1080/09540120412331319741

Parvin, S., & Eslamian, A. (2014). The lived experience of social relations in women living with HIV. Women in Development & Politics, 12(2), 207-228. doi:10.22059/JWDP.2014.52356

Pirasteh Motlagh, A. A., Nikmanesh, Z., & Akbari Ali Abad, T. (2014). The relationship of spirituality and awareness and attitude towards disease with feeling of suffering in patients with AIDS/HIV. Research in Psychological Health, 8(2), 41-50.

Pourseyyed, S. M., Motevalli, M. M., Pourseyyed, S. R., & Barahimi, Z. (2015). Relationship of perceived stress, perfectionism and social support with students‟ academic burnout and academic performance. Education Strategies in Medical Sciences, 8(3), 187-194.

Primeau, M. M., Avellaneda, V., Musselman, D., St. Jean, G., & Illa, L. (2013). Treatment of depression in individuals living with HIV/AIDS. Psychosomatics, 54(4), 336-344. doi:10.1016/j.psym.2012.12.001

Rao, M. A., Ramapuram, J., & Kotian, S. S. (2016). Assessment of emotional problems faced by people living with HIV/AIDS and to study the role of family support and role of a counsellor to manage the emotional problems. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, 2(7).

Rogers, C. R. (1961). Communication: Its blocking and its facilitation. In C. R. Rogers, On becoming a person (pp. 329-337). Sao Paulo, Brazil: Universidade de Sao Paulo.

Rogers, C. R. (1959). A theory of therapy, personality, and interpersonal relationships: As developed in the client-centered framework (vol. 3). New York, USA: McGrawHill.

Rzeszutek, M., Oniszczenko, W., & Firląg-Burkacka, E. (2016). Gender differences in posttraumatic stress symptoms and the level of posttraumatic growth among a Polish sample of HIV-positive individuals. AIDS care, 28(11), 1411-1415. doi:10.1080/09540121.2016.1182615

Rzeszutek, M., Oniszczenko, W., Schier, K., Biernat-Kałuża, E., & Gasik, R. (2016). Temperament traits, social support, and trauma symptoms among HIV/AIDS and chronic pain patients. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 16(2), 137-146. doi:10.1016/j.ijchp.2015.10.001

Safaee, S., Ghiasi, M., Jafari Nodoushan, A., Kakaei, H., & Jafari Nodoushan, R. (2016). Modeling of self - Concept and work stress in women personnel of Semnan University of Medical Sciences: mediated role of religious orientation. Occupational Medicine Quarterly Journal, 7(3), 19-27.

Safarcherati, A., Amin-Esmaeili, M., Shadloo, B., Mohraz, M., & Rahimi-Movaghar, A. (2016). Correlation of mental illness and HIV/AIDS infection. Tehran University Medical Journal, 73(10), 685-692.

Seligman, M., & Rozenhan, D. (2007). Abnormal psychology. (7th ed.). Tehran, Iran: Savalan Press.

Shamloo, S. (2011). Schools and theories in personality psychology. Tehran, Iran: Roshd Press.

Sheybani, M. (2012). The relationship between social support, depression and anxiety with memory problems in patients with AIDS. Master's Thesis. Shiraz, Iran: Shiraz University.

Soltani Shal, R., AghaMohammadiyan She'rbaf, H. R., & Kareshki, H. (2013). The role of personality type D and emotional intelligence through perceived stress mediation and coping strategies in the quality of life of heart patients. Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 17(7), 449-459.

Stevens, J. P. (1996). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In J. P. Stevens, Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences (pp. 362-428) (5th ed.). London, UK: Routledge.

Taheri, R., Zandi Ghashghaei, K., & Honarparvaran, N. (2012). The comparison of relationship between family communication patterns and self concept with coping styles in male and female students. Armaghane Danesh, 17(4), 359- 369.

Tsai, M. C., Lu, P. L., Wu, S. J., & Feng, M. C. (2017). Stress, needs, and quality of life of people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS in North East China. Hu Li Za Zhi, 64(2), 99-108. doi:10.6224/jn.000026

Woolfolk Hoy, A., Hoy, W. K., & Davis, H. A. (2009). Teachers‟ self-efficacy beliefs. In K. R. Wentzel & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp. 627-653). New York, USA: Routledge.

Yariyan, S. (2008). Comparative study of quality of life, stress and mental health among addicts with HIV, non-addicted people with HIV and healthy people in Tehran. Master's thesis. Tehran, Iran: Allame Tabataba'ei University.

Yazdanpanah, H. (2013). Comparison of family function, self-concept and control source in adolescents with epilepsy and without epilepsy. Master's dissertation. Tehran, Iran: Faculty of Psychology and Social Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran Central Branch.

Ybrandt, H. (2008). The relation between self-concept and social functioning in adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 31(1), 1-16. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2007.03.004

Yi, M. S., Mrus, J. M., Wade, T. J., Ho, M. L., Hornung, R. W., Cotton, S., Peterman, A. H., Puchalski, C. M., & Tsevat, J. (2006). Religion, spirituality, and depressive symptoms in patients with HIV/AIDS. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21(S5), S21-27. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1497.2006.00643.x

Zare, A. (2001). Comparison of the contribution of emotional intelligence and general intelligence in predicting the academic achievement of third grade high school students in Shiraz. Master's thesis. Tehran, Iran: Iran University of Medical Sciences.

Zarekar, A., Rahimiyambogar, E., & Ghodrati, M. (2015). Comparison of executive function, emotional intelligence and emotion regulation in schizophrenia and bipolar disorders and healthy people. Journal of Ilam University of Medical Sciences, 23(4), 123-134.




How to Cite

Dehghan, M. N., Karimzadeh, M., Teymouri, R., & Rostami, M. (2019). Prediction of Perceived Stress Based on Self-concept and Emotional Intelligence in Females with HIV/AIDS. Postmodern Openings, 10(1), 1-20.



Research Articles

Publish your work at the Scientific Publishing House LUMEN

It easy with us: publish now your work, novel, research, proceeding at Lumen Scientific Publishing House

Send your manuscript right now