Urban/Rural Workplace – A Relevant Factor in Manifesting Intercultural Sensitivity
Keywords:Intercultural sensitivity, diversity, multicultural classroom, urban residence, rural residence
Our paper presents the results of a questionnaire-based inquiry aimed to investigate the level of intercultural sensitivity concerning respondents’ workplace background, namely urban versus rural. The main purpose of our research is to highlight possible differences in intercultural sensitivity levels at teachers working in urban and rural schools, which constitutes our contribution to the research existing in the field. The general hypotheses of our research are: the workplace background (urban/rural) impacts the level of manifesting intercultural sensitivity; the urban workplace of respondents is connected to a higher level of manifesting intercultural sensitivity. This investigation is part of wider research that aims to identify teacher training practices that may raise pre- and in-service teachers’ levels of intercultural sensitivity and better prepare them to work with groups of students characterized by diversity, as well as solutions to educational issues in the Romanian context by considering the two different contexts in which education takes place, namely urban and rural. Our findings have revealed higher levels of intercultural sensitivity at teachers working in urban schools, compared to those working in rural schools and the results obtained for each specific hypothesis and objective reveal the particularities involved for each scale dimension.
Afdal, G. (2006). Tolerance and curriculum: Conceptions of tolerance in the multicultural unitary Norwegian compulsory school. Waxmann Verlag GmbH.
Albu, G., Cojocariu, V.-M. (2015). Intercultural Education – Tensions and Prospects Case Study – The Approach of the 1st-year Students from the Pedagogy of Primary and Pre-school Education. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 209, 53-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.11.254
Bennett, M. J. (1991). Developing intercultural sensitivity. Training and Culture Newsletter, 3(5), 4, 16
Bhawuk, D. P. S., & Brislin, R. W. (1992). The measurement of intercultural sensitivity using the concepts of individualism and collectivism. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 16, 413-436. https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(92)90031-O
Boghian, I. (2019). Empowering Teachers to Deal with Classroom Diversity. Revista Romaneasca Pentru Educatie Multidimensionala, 11(3), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.18662/rrem/134
Boghian, I. (2018). Values Promoted by Intercultural Education. Proceedings of CIEA 2018 The Fifth International Conference on Adult Education Education for values - continuity and context. EDlearning, 383-390.
Boghian, I. (2017). A Psycho-pedagogical Approach to the Concept of Tolerance. Journal of Innovation in Psychology, Education and Didactics, 21(1), 95-102.
Boghian, I. (2016). Teachers’ Perspectives on tolerance education. A Literature Review. Journal of Innovation in Psychology, Education and Didactics, 20(2), 136-142.
Chen, G. M., & Starosta, W. J. (1996). Intercultural communication competence: A synthesis. Annals of the International Communication Association, 19 (1), 353-383. https://doi.org/10.1080/23808985.1996.11678935
Cojocariu, V.-M, & Boghian, I. (2019a). Discrimination of children in the romanian educational system. The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences EpSBS, LXVII, 119-128.
Cojocariu, V.-M, & Boghian, I. (2019b). Poverty Discrimination of Children in School. The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences EpSBS, LX, 195-203. DOI: 10.15405/epsbs.2019.04.02.25 https://www.europeanproceedings.com/files/data/article/85/5263/article_85_5263_pdf_100.pdf
Čuhlová, R. (2019). Intercultural Adaptation Process and Its Determinants. International Journal of Economics, Finance and Management Sciences, 7(6), 215-221. doi: 10.11648/j.ijefm.20190706.16. http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo?journalid=173&doi=10.11648/j.ijefm.20190706.16
European Commission. (2019a). European Commission Country Report Romania. https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/file_import/2019-european-semester-country-report-romania_en.pdf
European Commission. (2019b). Preparing a post-2020 initiative on Roma equality and inclusion. https://ec.europa.eu/info/policies/justice-and-fundamental-rights/combatting-discrimination/roma-and-eu/preparing-post-2020-initiative-roma-equality-and-inclusion_en
European Commission. (2012). Recommendation of the European Committee of Ministers. https://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Education/Training/Compilation/Pages/26CommitteeofMinistersRecommendationCMRec(2012)13tomemberStatesonensuringqualityeducation(2012).aspx
Fritz, W., Mollenberg, A., & Chen, G. M. (2002). Measuring intercultural sensitivity in a different cultural context. Intercultural Communication Studies, 11 (2), 165-176. : https://web.uri.edu/iaics/files/12-Wolfgang-Fritz-Antje-Mollenberg.pdf
Guţu, V., & Boghian, I. (2019). A Bidimensional Psycho-pedagogical Model for Tolerance Education. Revista Românească pentru Educaţie Multidimensională, 11(4), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.18662/rrem/153
Guvernul României. (2017). Strategia Naţională pentru dezvoltare durabilă a României 2030. [The National Strategy for Romania's Sustainable Development 2030] https://www.edu.ro/sites/default/files/Strategia-nationala-pentru-dezvoltarea-durabila-a-Rom%C3%A2niei-2030.pdf
Guvernul României. (2011). Strategia Guvernului României de incluziune socială a cetăţenilor români aparţinând minorităţii rome pentru perioada 2014-2020. [The National Strategy for the inclusion of the Romanian citizens belonging to Roma minority for 2014-2020]. http://www.anr.gov.ro/docs/Site2014/Strategie/Strategie_final_18-11-2014.pdf
Guvernul României. Legea Educaţiei Naţionale Nr. 1/2011 din România (appended 18.07.2019) [Law of National Education No. 1/2011 of Romania] (original in Romanian). https://www.edu.ro/sites/default/files/_fi%C8%99iere/Minister/2017/legislatie%20MEN/Legea%20nr.%201_2011_actualizata2018.pdf
Hopkins, P. E. (2004) Young Muslim men in Scotland: inclusions and exclusions. Children's geographies, 2(2), 257-272. https://doi.org/10.1080/14733280410001720548
Khuhlaev, O., Gritsenko, V. V., Pavlova, O. S., Tkachenko, N. V., Usubia, S. A., & Shorokhova, V. A. (2020). Comprehensive Model of Intercultural Competence: Theoretical Substantiation. RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics, 17(1), 13-28. https://doi.org/10.22363/2313-1683-2020-17-1-13-28
Loewen, N. (2013). A proposal to support college internalization within a pedagogy of positive tolerance. Pedagogie Collegiale, 26 (3), 1-6.
Mekheimer, M. (2019). Developing and assessing the relationship between intercultural communication competence and intercultural sensitivity in the EFL classroom. Journal of Research in Curriculum, Instruction and Educational Technology, 5(3), 107-134. https://jrciet.journals.ekb.eg/article_54145.html
National Institute of Statistics (2020). Recensământul populaţiei şi al locuinţelor [Population and housing census.]. http://www.recensamantromania.ro/
Neculau B. C. (2011). Nevoia de educaţie interculturală astăzi, calea spre o societate tolerantă. In: Toleranţa-cheia ce deschide calea spre o lume nouă, a unităţii prin diversitate. Simpozion internaţional. Spiru Haret, pp. 34-36.
Neuner, G. (2012). The dimensions of intercultural education. In J. Huber (Ed.), Intercultural competence for all. Preparation for living in a heterogeneous world (pp. 11-50). Council of Europe Publishing. https://rm.coe.int/intercultural-competence-for-all/16808ce20c
Reardon, B. (2004). Toleranţa - calea spre pace. [Tolerance – the path towards peace]. Chisinau: ARC.
Salgur, S., A. (2013). The importance of the teacher in intercultural education. International Journal of Global Education, 2(1), 1-5. http://www.ijtase.net/ojs/index.php/ijge/article/view/244/312
Savu, E. (2014). The ‘intercultural’ teacher – a new response to the teaching career. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 128, 111-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.127
Toes, D. (2013). Educaţia pentru toleranţă necesară în învăţământul primar. Revista secolului, 18-24.
Tuomaala, S. (2013). Behaviourism versus Intercultural Education in the Novel Purple Hibiscus. A Literature Study of Education in Purple Hibiscus from a Swedish EFL Perspective [Unpublished master’s degree dissertation]. Södertörn University.
Ţurcan, L. (2015). Formarea cadrelor didactice prin valorile toleranţei [Teacher training through tolerance values]. Chişinău, Republic of Moldova: Tipogr. UPSC “Ion Creangă”.
United Nations Organization. (1989). The United Nations Conventions on the Rights of the Child. https://www.unicef.org/child-rights-convention
United Nations Organization. (2015). The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (adopted by the member states of the United Nations Organization in September 2015). https://ec.europa.eu/environment/sustainable-development/SDGs/#:~:text=The%20Agenda%20is%20a%20commitment,towards%20sustainable%20development%20for%20all
Voinea, M. (2012). The role of intercultural education in defining the system of individual values. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 33, 288-292. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.01.129
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 The Authors & LUMEN Publishing House
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant this journalright of first publication, with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work, with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g. post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g. in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as an earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie Multidimensionala Journal has an Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs