The Influence of Practical Curricular Courses on the Upper Body Flexibility in the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Students


  • George Danut Mocanu Associate Professor, Dunărea de Jos University, Galaţi, Romania
  • Tatiana Dobrescu Professor PhD, Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacau, Romania



curricular activities, flexibility, joint mobility, students, stretching


The range and quality of sports technique is conditioned by flexibility. This study analyzes the effects of practical activities that are specific to the first year FPES Galati courses on the upper body flexibility. Over the course of the academic year 2017-2018, the investigated group (composed of 27 girls and 46 boys) has constantly participated for 28 weeks in the 6 practical courses (gymnastics, track and field, swimming, football, volleyball, ice skating), divided in a balanced way throughout the two semesters. The analysis and comparison of the results for the two sexes, during the initial and final tests, applied at the beginning and the end of the academic year, show a superiority of the girls' flexibility in almost all events. The Wilcoxon test for paired samples has identified significant progress between the initial and final assessments in the female group, in 4 of the tests (Right lateral trunk flexibility Combined spine-hip flexibility, Shoulder flexibility, Vertical arm flexibility), recording Z values corresponding to thresholds of P<0.05; however, in the male group, no significant progress was recorded not even in one of the tests, all Z values corresponding to thresholds of P>0.05. The investigation of the differences recorded between independent samples, using the Mann Whitney U test, has identified significant increases in the girls' values in only 3 events, during the initial tests, and in 4 during the final ones, even if the girls' average values are higher than the boys' values for most tests. In conclusion, the boys did not record significant improvements in their performances, only a slight increase or the same values over the course of the investigated period; the girls however, recorded results that show a potential of optimizing their flexibility at this age. The authors recommend that an increased attention should be given during practical courses to develop the students' flexibility as a favoring factor of motion fluidity and improvement of the students' motor potential.

Author Biography

George Danut Mocanu, Associate Professor, Dunărea de Jos University, Galaţi, Romania

George Dănuț Mocanu, Associate Professor PhD within the Department of Individual Sports and Physical Therapy of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports, “Dunarea de Jos University” of Galati.

He wrote 12 specialized books and university courses and published over 65 scientific articles in national and international journals and conferences.

Research focus: Theory and Methodology of Physical Education, Specialty Didactics, Kinesiology, Leisure, Mountain Tourism.


Abalasei, B., & Popescu, V. (2015). The Importance of Formal Education in the Training of Athletes. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 191, 2453-2457.

Alexe, D. I. (2010). Predarea atletismului în învăţământul gimnazial [Teaching athletics in middle school education]. PIM.

Alves de Araújo, M. E., Bezerra da Silva, E., Bragade Mello, D., Cader, S. A., Shiguemi Inoue Salgado, A., & Dantas, E. H. M. (2012). The effectiveness of the Pilates method: Reducing the degree of non-structural scoliosis, and improving flexibility and pain in female college students. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 16(2), 191–198.

Amorim, T. P., Sousa, F. M., & dos Santos, J. A. R. (2011). Influence of Pilates training on muscular strength and flexibility in dancers. Motriz: Revista de Educação Física, 17(4), 660-666.

Badau, A., & Badau, D. (2011). Aqua-pullpush-gym. An Novative Method of Gymnastic in Water. Transilvania University Publish House.

Bădău, A., Ungur, R. N., & Bădău, D. (2015). Influence of water gymnastics on strength development. Palestrica of the Third Millennium Civilization & Sport, 16(3), 235-240.

Barrett, C., & Smerdely, P. (2002). A comparison of community-based resistance exercise and flexibility exercise for seniors. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 48(3), 215-219.

Bayartai, M.-E., Ferreira, P. H., Pappas, E., Pinheiro, M. B., Dambadarjaa, B., Khuyagbaatar, E., & Sullivan, J. (2020). Genetic and environmental effects on lumbar posture, flexibility and motion control in healthy adults. Musculoskeletal Science and Practice, 50, 02253.

Bianchi Sanches, S. H., Osório, F. de L., Udina, M., Martín-Santos, R., & Crippa, J. A. S. (2012). Anxiety and joint hypermobility association: A systematic review. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 34, S53-S68.

Boukabache, A., Preece, S. J., & Brookes, N. (2020). Prolonged sitting and physical inactivity are associated with limited hip extension: A cross-sectional study. Musculoskeletal Science and Practice, 51, 102282.

Canal, M. (2005). La souplesse: Quelques mises au point [Stretching exercises: an update]. Journal de Traumatologie du Sport, 22(1), 32-43.

Chen, Y.-L., Lin, W.-C., Chen, Y., Wen, Y.-W., Yan, S.-Q., & Tsai, T.-L. (2020). Effect of wearing jeans on the back muscle flexion-relaxation phenomenon. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 76, 102938.

Chui, K., Yen, S.-C., Chen, T., & Christiansen, C. (2020). Chapter 15 - Impaired Joint Mobility in Older Adults. In D. Avers & R. A. Wong (Eds.), Guccione’s Geriatric Physical Therapy (4th ed.) (pp. 344-364). Mosby.

Dobrescu, T., & Constantinescu, E. (2006). Gimnastica-concepte teoretice şi aplicaţii practice [Gymnastics-theoretical concepts and practical applications]. Editura Tehnopress.

Domaradzki, J., Kochan-Jacheć, K., Trojanowska, I., & Koźlenia, D. (2021). Kickboxers and crossfitters vertebral column curvatures in sagittal plane: Crossfit practice influence in kickboxers body posture. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 25, 193-198.

Emery, K., De Serres, S. J., McMillan, A., & Côté, J. N. (2010). The effects of a Pilates training program on arm-trunk posture and movement. Clinical Biomechanics, 25(2), 124-130.

Enoiu, R. S. (2006). Manual pentru învăţarea înotului [Handbook for learning to swim]. Transilvania University Publishing House.

Grigore, V. (2003). Gimnastica: Manual pentru cursul de baza [Gymnastics: Manual for the basic course]. Bren.

Heneghan, N. R., Baker, G., Thomas, K., Falla, D., & Rushton, A. (2018). What is the effect of prolonged sitting and physical activity on thoracic spine mobility? An observational study of young adults in a UK university setting. BMJ Open, 8(5), e019371.

Jenkins, J., & Beazell, J. (2010). Flexibility for Runners. Clinics in Sports Medicine, 29(3), 365-377.

Konin, J. G., & Jessee, B. (2012). 6 - Range of Motion and Flexibility. In J. R. Andrews, G. L. Harrelson & K. E. Wilk (Eds.), Physical Rehabilitation of the Injured Athlete (4th ed.) (pp. 74-88). W.B. Saunders.

Lindgren, S., & Twomey, L. (1988). Spinal Mobility and Trunk Muscle Strength in Elite Hockey Players. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 34(3), 123-130.

Manshouri, M., Rahnama, N., & Khorzoghi, M. B. (2014.). Effects of Pilates exercises on flexibility and volleyball serve skill in female college students. International Journal of Current Research, 6(12), 11188-11192.

Massidda, M., Miyamoto, N., Beckley, S., Kikuchi, N., & Fuku, N. (2019). Chapter Thirteen - Genetics of flexibility. In D. Barh & I. I. Ahmetov (Eds.), Sports, Exercise, and Nutritional Genomics (pp. 273-293). Academic Press.

Mocanu, G. D. (2015). Teoria educaţiei fizice şi sportului [Theory of physical education and sports]. Editura Fundaţiei Universitare Dunărea de Jos.

Morley, J. J., & Traum, E. (2019). The effects of dorso-lumbar motion restriction on energy use and center of mass movement during running. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 23(4), 873-880.

Murariu, G. (2018). Fizică statistică și computațională - Aspecte contemporane si aplicații [Statistical and computational physics - Contemporary aspects and applications]. Galati University Press.

Murariu, G., & Munteanu, D. (2018). Lucrări practice de identificare, modelare şi simulare a proceselor fizice [Practical works for identification, modeling and simulation of physical processes]. Galati University Press.

Opariuc-Dan, C. (2011). Statistică aplicată în științele socio-umane. Analiza asocierilor și a diferențelor statistice [Statistics applied in the socio-human sciences. Analysis of associations and statistical differences]. ARHIP-ART.

Potop, V., & Marinescu, S. (2014). Gimnastica în şcoală-metodica disciplinelor gimnice [Gymnastics in school-methodology of gymnastic disciplines.]. Discobolul Publishing House.

Preda, C., & Păcuraru, A. (2012). Volei: Bazele teoretice şi metodice [Volleyball: Theoretical and methodological bases]. University Press.

Räty, H. P., Battié, M. C., Videman, T., & Sarna, S. (1997). Lumbar mobility in former élite male weight-lifters, soccer players, long-distance runners and shooters. Clinical Biomechanics, 12(5), 325–330.

Sandu, A. Ş. (2012). Etică şi deontologie profesională [Ethics and professional deontology]. Lumen.

Savu, V.-C. (2019). Influence of the Preparation Games on Increasing Efficiency in the Training of the School Representative Soccer Team. Gymnasium-SJESH, XIX(1), 161-176.

Shariat, A., Cleland, J. A., Danaee, M., Kargarfard, M., Sangelaji, B., & Tamrin, S. B. M. (2018). Effects of stretching exercise training and ergonomic modifications on musculoskeletal discomforts of office workers: A randomized controlled trial. Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy, 22(2), 144-153.

Silva, C. C., Silva, L. F., Santos, C. R., Goldberg, T. B. L., Ramos, S. P., & Venancio, E. J. (2019). Genetic polymorphism on the flexibility of elite rhythmic gymnasts: State of art. Apunts. Medicina de l’Esport, 54(201), 27-35.

Tak, I. J. R., Weerink, M., & Barendrecht, M. (2020). Judokas with low back pain have lower flexibility of the hip-spine complex: A case-control study. Physical Therapy in Sport, 45, 30–37.

Thrash, K., & Kelly, B. (1987). Flexibility and Strength Training. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 1(4), 74-75.

Yamauchi, T., Hasegawa, S., Nakamura, M., Nishishita, S., Yanase, K., Fujita, K., Umehara, J., Ji, X., Ibuki, S., & Ichihashi, N. (2016). Effects of two stretching methods on shoulder range of motion and muscle stiffness in baseball players with posterior shoulder tightness: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, 25(9), 1395-1403.

Zakas, A., Balaska, P., Grammatikopoulou, M. G., Zakas, N., & Vergou, A. (2005). Acute effects of stretching duration on the range of motion of elderly women. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 9(4), 270-276.

Zawadka, M., Skublewska-Paszkowska, M., Gawda, P., Lukasik, E., Smolka, J., & Jablonski, M. (2018). What factors can affect lumbopelvic flexion-extension motion in the sagittal plane?: A literature review. Human Movement Science, 58, 205-218.




How to Cite

Mocanu, G. D., & Dobrescu, T. (2021). The Influence of Practical Curricular Courses on the Upper Body Flexibility in the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Students. Revista Romaneasca Pentru Educatie Multidimensionala, 13(4), 394-412.

Publish your work at the Scientific Publishing House LUMEN

It easy with us: publish now your work, novel, research, proceeding at Lumen Scientific Publishing House

Send your manuscript right now