Education of the Lower Body Flexibility in Students by Combining Various Types of Stretching during Physical Education Lessons


  • George Danut Mocanu Associate Professor, Dunărea de Jos University, Galaţi, Romania
  • Tatiana Dobrescu Professor PhD, Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacau, Romania



flexibility; stretching; physical education; students; warm up; cool down


Goal: The identification of the effectiveness of the application of dynamic stretching (DS) and static stretching (SS) during warm-up and cool-down, in regards to lower body flexibility. Participants: 206 boys and 91 girls, first- and second-year students of the Dunărea de Jos University, Galați, involved in over 90% of the physical education lessons over the course of both semesters of the academic year 2018-2019, for 28 weeks, 1 module/2 hours weekly. Results: The statistical calculation performed with ANOVA, with repeated measurements indicates the existence of significant progress (values of F<.05), for both genders, in most of the applied tests, but the size of the effect (Partial eta squared/Ƞ2p) shows a weak influence of the independent variable on the flexibility values in half of the analyzed cases. The average values of the girls' performances are significantly superior to the boys' results, in 6 out of 8 tests. Conclusions: The stretching types used during the physical education lessons are effective, producing results in regards to flexibility and to the initial, reduced training level, however, in order to get stronger effects, one physical education lesson per week is not a viable solution to achieve long term favorable adaptations.  

Author Biography

George Danut Mocanu, Associate Professor, Dunărea de Jos University, Galaţi, Romania

George Danut Mocanu, Associate Professor PhD within the Department of Individual Sports and Physical Therapy of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports, “Dunarea de Jos University” of Galati.

He wrote 12 specialized books and university courses and published over 65 scientific articles in national and international journals and conferences.

Research focus: Theory and Methodology of Physical Education, Specialty Didactics, Kinesiology, Leisure, Mountain Tourism.


Alexe, D. I. (2010). Predarea atletismului în învăţământul gimnazial [Teaching athletics in middle school education]. PIM.

Alipasali, F., Papadopoulou, S. D., Gissis, I., Komsis, G., Komsis, S., Kyranoudis, A., Knechtle, B., & Nikolaidis, P. T. (2019). The Effect of Static and Dynamic Stretching Exercises on Sprint Ability of Recreational Male Volleyball Players. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(16), 2835.

Alter, M. J. (2004). Science of Flexibility. Human Kinetics.

Amiri-Khorasani, M., Abu Osman, N. A., & Yusof, A. (2011). Acute Effect of Static and Dynamic Stretching on Hip Dynamic Range of Motion During Instep Kicking in Professional Soccer Players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(6), 1647-1652.

Ayala, F., Sainz de Baranda, P., De Ste Croix, M., & Santonja, F. (2013). Comparison of active stretching technique in males with normal and limited hamstring flexibility. Physical Therapy in Sport, 14(2), 98-104.

Bacurau, R. F. P., Monteiro, G. A., Ugrinowitsch, C., Tricoli, V., Cabral, L. F., & Aoki, M. S. (2009). Acute Effect of a Ballistic and a Static Stretching Exercise Bout on Flexibility and Maximal Strength. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 23(1), 304-308.

Badau, A., & Badau, D. (2011). Aqua-pullpush-gym. An Novative Method of Gymnastic in Water. Transilvania University Publish House.

Badau, D., & Badau, A. (2018). The motric, Educational, Recreational and Satisfaction Impact of Adventure Education Activities in the Urban Tourism Environment. Sustainability, 10(6), 2106.

Barbosa, G. M., Trajano, G. S., Dantas, G. A. F., Silva, B. R., & Vieira, W. H. B. (2020). Chronic Effects of Static and Dynamic Stretching on Hamstrings Eccentric Strength and Functional Performance: A Randomized Controlled Trial. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 34(7), 2031-2039.

Becerra-Fernández, C. A., Merino-Marban, R., & Mayorga-Vega, D. (2016). Effect of a physical education-based dynamic stretching program on hamstring extensibility in female high-school students. Kinesiology, 48(2), 258-266.

Behm, D. G., & Chaouachi, A. (2011). A review of the acute effects of static and dynamic stretching on performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 111(11), 2633-2651.

Bogdanis, G. C., Donti, O., Tsolakis, C., Smilios, I., & Bishop, D. J. (2019). Intermittent but Not Continuous Static Stretching Improves Subsequent Vertical Jump Performance in Flexibility-Trained Athletes. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 33(1), 203-210.

Chan, S. P., Hong, Y., & Robinson, P. D. (2001). Flexibility and passive resistance of the hamstrings of young adults using two different static stretching protocols. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 11(2), 81-86.

Chaouachi, A., Castagna, C., Chtara, M., Brughelli, M., Turki, O., Galy, O., Chamari, K., & Behm, D. G. (2010). Effect of Warm-Ups Involving Static or Dynamic Stretching on Agility, Sprinting, and Jumping Performance in Trained Individuals. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(8), 2001-2011.

D’Anna, C., & Gomez Paloma, F. (2015). Dynamic stretching versus static stretching in gymnastic performance. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 10(Proc1).

Dobrescu, T., & Constantinescu, E. (2006). Gimnastica-concepte teoretice şi aplicaţii practice [Gymnastics-theoretical concepts and practical applications]. Editura Tehnopress.

Donti, Ο., Papia, K., Toubekis, A., Donti, A., Sands, W. A., & Bogdanis, G. C. (2018). Flexibility training in preadolescent female athletes: Acute and long-term effects of intermittent and continuous static stretching. Journal of Sports Sciences, 36(13), 1453-1460.

Enoiu, R. S. (2006). Manual pentru învăţarea înotului [Handbook for learning to swim.]. Transilvania University Publishing House

Hair, J., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2009). Multivariate Data Analysis (7th ed.). Pearson.

Kafkas, A. Ş., Aydın, Y., Eken, Ö., Çınarlı, F. S., & Kafkas, M. E. (2019). Acute effect of different stretching protocols on flexibility, yoyo IR-1 and repeated sprint ability performance. Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise, 21(2), 196-203.

Kistler, B. M., Walsh, M. S., Horn, T. S., & Cox, R. H. (2010). The Acute Effects of Static Stretching on the Sprint Performance of Collegiate Men in the 60- and 100-m Dash After a Dynamic Warm-Up. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(9), 2280-2284.

Knudson, D. (2006). The biomechanics of stretching. Journal of Exercise Science and Physiotherapy, 2, 3-12.

Matsuo, S., Iwata, M., Miyazaki, M., Fukaya, T., Yamanaka, E., Nagata, K., Tsuchida, W., Asai, Y., & Suzuki, S. (2019). Changes in Flexibility and Force are not Different after Static Versus Dynamic Stretching. Sports Medicine International Open, 3(3), E89-E95.

Meroni, R., Cerri, C. G., Lanzarini, C., Barindelli, G., Morte, G. D., Gessaga, V., Cesana, G. C., & De Vito, G. (2010). Comparison of Active Stretching Technique and Static Stretching Technique on Hamstring Flexibility. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 20(1), 8-14.

Micheo, W., Baerga, L., & Miranda, G. (2012). Basic Principles Regarding Strength, Flexibility, and Stability Exercises. PM&R, 4(11), 805-811.

Mocanu, G. D. (2020). Study on Educating the Flexibility of the Lower Body Muscles of the Students From the Specialized Faculties Through the Curricular Practical Activities. GYMNASIUM, XXI(1), 15-33.

Murariu, G. (2018). Fizică statistică și computațională - Aspecte contemporane si aplicații [Statistical and computational physics - Contemporary aspects and applications]. Galati University Press.

Murariu, G., & Munteanu, D. (2018). Lucrări practice de identificare, modelare şi simulare a proceselor fizice [Practical works for identification, modeling and simulation of physical processes].Galati University Press.

Opariuc-Dan, C. (2011). Statistică aplicată în științele socio-umane. Analiza asocierilor și a diferențelor statistice. Arhip-Art.

Opplert, J., & Babault, N. (2018). Acute Effects of Dynamic Stretching on Muscle Flexibility and Performance: An Analysis of the Current Literature. Sports Medicine, 48(2), 299-325. https:/

Paradisis, G. P., Pappas, P. T., Theodorou, A. S., Zacharogiannis, E. G., Skordilis, E. K., & Smirniotou, A. S. (2014). Effects of Static and Dynamic Stretching on Sprint and Jump Performance in Boys and Girls. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 28(1), 154-160.

Peeler, J., & Anderson, J. E. (2007). Effectiveness of Static Quadriceps Stretching in Individuals With Patellofemoral Joint Pain. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 17(4), 234-241.

Perrier, E. T., Pavol, M. J., & Hoffman, M. A. (2011). The Acute Effects of a Warm-Up Including Static or Dynamic Stretching on Countermovement Jump Height, Reaction Time, and Flexibility. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(7), 1925-1931.

Rubini, E. C., Costa, A. L. L., & Gomes, P. S. C. (2007). The Effects of Stretching on Strength Performance. Sports Medicine, 37(3), 213-224.

Snyder, A. R., McLeod, T. V., & Hartman, A. J. (2006). The Impact of Stretching on Sports-Injury Risk and Performance. International Journal of Athletic Therapy and Training, 11(6), 66-69.

Statistics & Theory. (2020, March 17). Repeated measures ANOVA 1: A within-subjects design [Video]. YouTube.

Takeuchi, K., & Nakamura, M. (2020). The optimal duration of high-intensity static stretching in hamstrings. PLOS ONE, 15(10), e0240181.

Thomas, E., Bianco, A., Paoli, A., & Palma, A. (2018). The Relation Between Stretching Typology and Stretching Duration: The Effects on Range of Motion. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 39(4), 243-254.

Yamaguchi, T., & Ishii, K. (2005). Effects of static stretching for 30 seconds and dynamic stretching on leg extension power. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 19(3), 677-683.

Zakaria, A. A., Kiningham, R. B., & Sen, A. (2015). Effects of Static and Dynamic Stretching on Injury Prevention in High School Soccer Athletes: A Randomized Trial. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 24(3), 229-235.




How to Cite

Mocanu, G. D., & Dobrescu, T. (2021). Education of the Lower Body Flexibility in Students by Combining Various Types of Stretching during Physical Education Lessons. Revista Romaneasca Pentru Educatie Multidimensionala, 13(4), 435-453.

Publish your work at the Scientific Publishing House LUMEN

It easy with us: publish now your work, novel, research, proceeding at Lumen Scientific Publishing House

Send your manuscript right now