C1_Cover_RSACVP_2017_B5Proceedings Volume: Rethinking Social Action. Core Values in Practice

Edited by: Camelia Ignătescu, Antonio Sandu, Tomiţă Ciulei
Published by: © LUMEN, 2017, Iasi, Romania & London, UK

ISSN (print): 2601 – 2510
ISSN (on-line): 2601 – 2529
ISSN–L: 2601 – 2510
ISBN: 978-1-910129-13-5

Indexed by: CEEOL, RePEc, Econ Papers, submitted for evaluation to Clarivate Analytics – Web of Sciences
Conference title: 8th LUMEN International Scientific Conference Rethinking Social Action. Core Values in Practice | RSACVP 2017 | 6-9 April 2017 | Suceava – Romania
Dates: April 6-9, 2017
Location: Suceava, Romania
Organized by:

Organizers LUMEN Conference Center, Iasi | ROMANIA, LUMEN Research Center in Social and Humanistic Sciences, Iasi | ROMANIA, LUMEN Publishing, Iasi | ROMANIA, LUMEN Consultancy & Training Center, Iasi | ROMANIA

Co-organizers | Faculty of Law & Administrative Sciences, Stefan cel Mare University from Suceava | ROMANIA (main partner & host), Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University | UKRAINE (main partner & host)

The reproduction of any part of this volume by photocopying, scanning, unauthorized multiplication, regardless of the medium of transmission, is prohibited. Peer review & manuscript selection under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of the Conference


RSACVP2017 – table of contents

1. Assessment of Marine Professionals’ Needs | View PDF
Author(s): Nicoleta ACOMI*, Ovidiu ACOMI
Pages: 9-17


Marine professionals represent a category of people with a wide area of competences. Their line of work often requires a wide range of technical knowledge and skills, along with transversal and soft skills acquired across multidisciplinary subjects. In addition to technical competencies provided through formal training, the predominantly temporary-based marine work assignments require skillsets that enable them to carry out specialised jobs. The challenge for this category of personnel is to maintain themselves up to date through continuous professional development. From a different perspective, training centres face similar challenges related to improving the existent curricula or proposing new training programmes to respond to the labour market needs. The present paper aims at exemplifying the utility of conducting survey-based primary market research for identifying the marine sector needs. The research method consists of establishing questionnaires targeting various categories of marine personnel and specific needs. Feedback was collected through an online survey during 2017. The questionnaires developed with filtering questions aim at involving trainees, lecturers, marine professionals, recruiters, career advisors and employers. This approach is thought to provide data of sufficient quality and quantity to meet the objective of reducing the gaps between the education sector and business expectations. The results of this study emphasise the views of the respondents with regards to the marine labour market. Based on the analysis of results, the authors proposed a set of solutions for developing the skills of marine professionals. The authors draw on the above and assert that continued data collection through online survey may result in closing the existing and emerging gaps.

Keywords: Marine professionals, maritime training, labour market, market survey, marine careers.

2. Ethics in the School. Ethical Principles and Values and the Historical Research  | View PDF
Author(s): Carmen ALEXANDRACHE*
Pages: 18-26


The paper intends to show that the students will realize the quality scientific actions if they know how are correct to find and use the historical sources. We focus on the fact that the ethical norms, principles need to be internalized by each pupil / student and, in this way these became values which involve the best research aptitudes. In the history lessons, the pupils / students learn what is correct / fake, just / unjust, good / wrong in the research activity. They need to know what is or is not allowed to do when identify information, analyze and interpret some dates, notices, processes and historical persona. The paper shows that, in the educational system, the ethical principles in the historical research refer to use sources, to work with historical information found, to report the results and communicate the notices, conclusions. These aspects were developed in the paper associating them with the appropriate abilities.

Keywords: History, ethics, education, curriculum, competences, critical think.

3. Karl Marx – From Marxianism to Marxism | View PDF
Author(s): Pompiliu ALEXANDRU, Cristina DINU*
Pages: 27-33


Firstly, this paper will define the two main concepts in the title “Marxianism and Marxism”, because one of them, Marxism, is a term frequently met in the writings about Marx, while the other, namely Marxianism, designates the actual work of Marx. Secondly, the main objective of this paper is to observe the difference between the two terms with examples from Marx’s work, his theories and the way they were applied by his followers, the twentieth century communists. And to narrow the area we will discuss only how the Marxianism was interpreted in Stalin’s regime. We will see to what extent Marx’s ideas were followed when applied in real life. In our research, we will see that we can talk about a degradation of Marx’s ideas and that this degradation occurred gradually. They have been degraded with the passage of time and after going through the minds of others who changed his ideology in order to meet their own interests and ideas, as Stalin’s ideology did. Regarding the results we expect from our research, we want to see if nowadays Marx can be held responsible for the extreme forms of twentieth century communism and, if not, what happened to the theory of Marx and most important how was it changed.

Keywords: Marxism, Marxianism, The Communist Manifesto, Stalin’s ideology.

4. Some Considerations on Peter Singer’s Practical Ethics | View PDF
Author(s): Mihai ANDRONE*
Pages: 34-43


Peter Singer’s applied or practical ethics constitutes a typical product of the pluralist, relativistic, utilitarian and secular spirit of the postmodern era. Being an influential public figure, at the same time famous and controversial to the highest degree, his ideas have more than once been considered as dangerous. A passionate advocate of animal rights, Peter Singer is not a supporter of man’s right to live. His philosophical attitude towards humanity and personality, his total separation from the Judeo-Christian tradition, protector of the sanctity of life, made him profess, in his book Practical Ethics, that the unborn children and the newborns are not rational beings and therefore do not value more (in fact, they value less) than certain animals. Such an anthropological conception evincing the psychological aspects of human existence is meant to “justify” abortion, infanticide, removal of haemophiliac children. This doctrinaire stance of the Australian moral philosopher aims at showing us the unhappy position of contemporary man who is deprived of certainties, of absolute moral benchmarks. Being an admirer of the French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, the atheist philosopher and ethicist Peter Singer considers that ethics is a natural phenomenon and man has no essential nature, being free to choose what he wants to be. By this type of existentialist ideas Peter Singer only confirms the truth of Jean-Paul Sartre’s statement in Existentialism is a Humanism: if God does not exist, then everything is permissible.

Keywords: Peter Singer, postmodernity, practical ethics, atheism, Jean-Paul Sartre.

5. The Influence of Jean-Paul Sartre’s Philosophy on Peter Singer’s Ethics | View PDF
Author(s): Mihai ANDRONE*
Pages: 44-51


Peter Singer is one of the best known contemporary thinkers, and his work has been stirring vivid debates, being carefully researched by philosophers, ethicists and theologians. Although it is generally known that Peter Singer has been concerned with the field of practical ethics, and he has been a promoter of animal rights, however the present article aims at evincing an interesting aspect, i.e. the extent to which Sartre’s philosophy made a real impact on Peter Singer’s ethics, and the effects of this impact. The present article starts from the premise that there are numerous common points between the opinions of these two authors. In any case, in his work Peter Singer repeatedly mentions the French existentialist philosopher, sharing the latter’s passion for man’s freedom to choose and follow his own path in life, beyond any traditional axiological points of reference of Judeo-Christian extraction. To Peter Singer freedom means choice, ethics is natural and not supernatural, and man does not dispose of an essential nature able to condition his future and thus the repertory of his personal moral options. In other words, Peter Singer agrees with Sartre’s statement in Existentialism is a Humanism, according to whom our existence precedes our essence. Just like Sartre, Peter Singer does not believe in absolute, immutable truths, and so his ethics and anthropology have a specific secular profile confirming in fact a certain reality, viz. the postmodern dissolution of the sacred.

Keywords: Peter Singer, Jean-Paul Sartre, ethics, freedom, choice.

6. Considerations on the Insolvency Proceedings for Individuals in Romania | View PDF
Author(s): Irina APETREI*
Pages: 52-66


This paper aims to present the particularities of insolvency proceedings for individuals and to analyse the manner this matter was regulated in Romania through Law no. 151/2015 on insolvency proceedings for individuals, published in the Official Gazette, Part I, no. 464 of 26 June 2015, and whose entry into force has been delayed until the 1st of August 2017. Since 1989, up to the adoption of this new law, Romania has had no legal rules on bankruptcy of individuals. The current Romanian regulation – Law no. 85/2014 on insolvency prevention and insolvency proceedings, published in the Official Gazette, Part I, no. 466 of 25 June 2014, applies to legal entities and to individuals registered with the National Trade Register and who must meet the requirement of being a professional, as defined by Article 3 of the Romanian Civil Code. Article 1 of the new law stipulates its purpose as follows: “… the establishment of collective proceedings for the recovery of the financial situation of a debtor – an individual, acting in good faith -, the coverage of his/her liabilities to the greatest extent and his/her debt discharge …”. Article 5 of the law introduces the three forms of insolvency proceedings for individuals: administrative insolvency proceedings based on a repayment plan, judicial insolvency proceedings through liquidation of assets and the simplified procedure of insolvency. The debtor may choose one of the three forms, after considering their financial situation.

Keywords: insolvency proceedings for individuals, insolvency procedural forms.

7. TAE BO – Form of Gym | View PDF
Author(s): Silviu Andrei BADEA*
Pages: 67-74


Tae Bo is a form of high impact aerobics that combines the moves of Tae Kwon Do, karate, boxing, ballet, and hip-hop dancing is the newest craze in gym and homes across the country. Tae Bo, which stands for Total Awareness. Tae Bo users should achieve a solid fitness foundation before beginning their workouts as even basic classes or videos require above average endurance, flexibility, and strength. Once a reasonable level of fitness has been achieved, beginners should be sure to master proper technique before starting a full fledge workout. Common beginner’s mistakes include overextending and locking joints when punching or kicking which can result in painful muscle damage. Tae Bo workouts can improve balance, coordination, flexibility, and will tone and define muscles. The workout regimen is exhaustively aerobic and therefore yields phenomenal cardiovascular benefits. Tae Bo can be an effective and beneficial cardiovascular workout when performed correctly by the right type of person individuals who do not frequently exercise, are overweight, are over the age of 50, or have health problems should opt for a lower impact form of exercise at least initially. When done properly, Tae Bo can increase lean body mass, decrease body fat, improve coordination and flexibility, and in some participants even increase the mineral content of the bones.

Keywords: Tae-bo, Aerobic Gym, Martial Arts; Karate; Self-defense; Discipline.

8. Teaching in Architecture Studios: Poetic Simplicity | View PDF
Author(s): Letiţia BĂRBUICĂ*
Pages: 75-91


John Pawson and SANAA (Kazuyo Sejima and Ryue Nizhizawa) share the same interest in simplicity. For SANAA, the concern for simplicity forms part of their cultural background while for Pawson it was acquired through a trip to Japan in his youth. Investigating their work, and how they approach architectural design, enables us to understand how simplicity can create a form of poetry within real world architecture. Pawson works with a Japanese notion – shibui – meaning to know when to stop, and with “pure geometry…another quality that seems to make simplicity more likely.”[1] SANAA, on the other hand, base their approach on Japanese culture and the concept of wabi – subdue austere beauty [2] – and on the beauty of imperfection which they find in the geometry of nature. The chaotic nature of the outside world needs to draw on abstract expressions such as these to achieve balance, an equilibrium both Pawson and SANAA are (re)searching for. What is the result of applying shibui and wabi-sabi to the architectural process? What can we learn by applying these concepts in this way? How can these concepts be used to teach architecture? Drawing on these two Japanese concepts a number of teaching suggestions will be proposed; these will be aimed at enabling students to investigate and explore differing approaches within the confines of the architectural studio.

Keywords: John Pawson; SANAA; simplicity; geometry; wabi-sabi; architecture studio workshop.

9. The Impact of Health Indicators on Economic Development and Social Wealth | View PDF
Author(s): Celia Dana BESCIU*, Armenia ANDRONICEANU
Pages: 92-102


Considering the researches of the scientific literature, that highlighted the strong connection between health, economics and the standards of living , the purpose of this paper is to identify to what extent the main indicators of health status have impact on long term economic growth. We used a sample of worldwide states, representing the data on which the analysis was conducted. Our research present the correlation between health work force density selected as independent variable and the dependent variables as: the number of infant deaths, life expectancy at birth, the increase of total revenues in GDP. The method used was linear estimation, both with simple regression and panel data model. The indicators were selected and processed from World Bank and World Health Organization data base. Our results confirm the research assumptions, regarding how the health work force density determine the decrease of infant mortality, an increase of life expectancy and the increase of total revenues in GDP. Health work force density plays the major role for the health system performance. We should reconsider the management of health system for a better coverage of people health needs, because the performance of human capital it is reflected subsequently in the economic competitiveness and social wealth.

Keywords: Health indicators, economic growth, health workers, management.

10. The Many Facets of the Romanian Conceptual Art | View PDF
Author(s): Smaranda BOSTAN*, Maria BILAŞEVSCHI
Pages: 103-110


Conceptual art was and still is a subject of great interest for art criticism and contemporary artists. The attention paid to this art has emerged both from the internationalization of the practices associated with conceptual art that continues up to the present day, but also because of the challenge and even rejection of this art as visual art. In Romania, since the early years of the establishment of the communist regime, art has become strictly subordinate to political interests, artists being forced to rally socialist realism and to abandon the styles practiced in the interwar period. This has reduced the aesthetic autonomy, art has to illustrate mainly the new social order, the rise of the proletariat and the unique political model: socialism. This paper is part of an analytical approach that aims to understand the conceptual art according to the specificity of Romania during those years and the political and social context in which it appeared. In the historical period that is the subject of this research, between the mid-1960s and the 1970s, the ruptures of the art of the beginning of the century and the politically imposed art were best observed.

Keywords: conceptual art, Romania, politics.

11. An Innovative Model for Science Teachers’ Continuous Professional Development based on Exploiting Multimedia and Web 2.0 Applications in Education | View PDF
Author(s): Iulian BREZEANU, Lucia PASCALE*, Pompiliu ALEXANDRU
Pages: 111-118



The rapid development of technology allows the introduction of new modes of transmission, processing and storage of information in educational practice, along with the development of new communication and socialization techniques. In view to make known some new opportunities of the information society, but also being useful for teachers, this  paper proposes an innovative model for teachers’ continuous professional development – being particularly dedicated  to  teachers who act in the area of Mathematics and Natural Sciences. This model was  tested and applied to a target group consisting of 1500 beneficiaries, in the frame of the project entitled: “ProWeb – A Network for Teachers’ Continuous Professional Development in order to Use Multimedia, Virtual Instrumentation and Web 2.0 in the Curricular Area of Mathematics and Natural Sciences” (POSDRU/157/1.3/S/141587). As result, participant teachers acquired new skills in integrating Web 2.0 applications (blogs, wikis, content distribution, social networks etc.) and multimedia educational software in effective learning tools, designed and developed by them in the format of demonstration lessons. The paper presents also the particularities of the continuous professional development program, developed in a blended learning system, pointing out on its original elements, starting with the e-learning platform that supported the whole training process, and ending with the evaluation and certification aspects. More, for assessing the effectiveness of the training process, the paper includes relevant data, obtained through an investigative impact study, performed on the target group.

Keywords:  teachers’ continuous professional development, blended learning, multimedia, web 2.0, impact study, ProWeb project.

12. Social Adjustment in Organizational Environment | View PDF
Author(s): Mariana Floricica CĂLIN*
Pages: 119-131



Problem statement. Professional activity is a personal expression of the person, a dimension of existence of each person, a measure of our place in society. Purpose of study is the identification of the way that psycho-social adaptability influences the individual from the point of view of integration in the professional activity, the latter one being a basic dimension of any individual’s existence, leading to professional success. Research methods: The research was based on three surveys that have aimed to identify the psychosocial adaptability, work satisfaction and organizational civic behavior level. Respondents were instructed to complete the questionnaires appropriately to situations most frequently encountered in everyday life. Findings. To validate the three hypothesis we used independent samples t test for independent samples and correlations between psychosocial adaptability, work satisfaction, and organizational civic behavior of 50 people aged between 30 and 59 years. Conclusions. Flexibility, the ability to schedule a task, the ability to harness previous experience, capability to restructure the work style in the event of a failure, all of them are psychosocial traits of adaptability.

Keywords: psychosocial adaptability, work satisfaction, organizational civic behavior.

13. Implementation of a Pedagogic Work Culture Development Model in Students with Special Educational Needs | View PDF

Author(s): Viorica CERNEAVSCHI*, Valentina STRATAN
Pages: 132-146


Work culture development in students with special needs, located at the core of technological education, becomes the main prerequisite in configuring an educational system, compatible with the features of students’ psychological and physical development, thus ensuring the quality of individual education in the context of current and future society. In this way, the scientific issue is determined by the importance of work culture formation in students with special needs and the necessity of a pedagogical model elaboration towards achievement of the latter. The elaborated model comprises the social reality and perspective of auxiliary school, the specificity and importance of technological education, the achievement of work culture goals in elementary students with special needs, in accordance with the general phases of mental process formation and their correlation with the stages of work abilities/capacities formation in auxiliary school students. Moreover, it values the principles of work culture formation by means of necessary pedagogical conditions, and implements specific technology of work culture formation in students with special needs.

Keywords: pedagogical model, work culture, special needs, intellectual abilities, pedagogical conditions.

14. The Transition from Dependency to Autonomy of Children with Down Syndrome through Development of Motor Skills in Gymnastic Exercises | View PDF
Author(s): Bianca CHERA-FERRARIO*, Camelia VOICU
Pages: 147-158


Motor abilities development in persons with Down syndrome is challenging but essential issue to their autonomous activity. Of motor skills, coordinating capabilities are key elements, necessary and mandatory for daily activities. Coordinating capacity is a complex a plurality of psychomotor skills inevitably present in the actions of everyday life. The paper describe the results obtained in developing autonomous abilities, targeting most the coordinating capacity, through activities held in Targoviste in the frame of the project “Development of motor skills in people with Down syndrome – essential step to an independent life”. The project was coordinated by Special Olympics Romania Foundation. The research objectives were to investigate the contribution of gymnastics programs to the development of coordinating capacity and autonomy of children with Down syndrome, and to assess the parent`s satisfaction with the children`s progress in obtaining more independency in daily routine. The research hypothesis was: if children with Down syndrome participate in periodic and regular gym activities, they will have a greater degree of autonomy in their daily activities. The results of gym programs confirmed the hypothesis. The regular and continuously gymnastics program had strengthening the Down syndrome children skills and their execution. Children were not only having better coordinating skills, but also they were using motor skills with precision, courage and, most important, independently in their daily activities. Also, the parents daily reports on children`s autonomy skills and activities showed improvements of children`s independent life and of their own.

Keywords: Down Syndrome, gymnastics program, autonomy skills, coordinating capacity.

15. Study Regarding the Motives of Children Participation in Sport Activities | View PDF
Author(s): Dana Maria CIOCAN*, Alexandra MILON, Gabriel MAREŞ
Pages: 159-168


The purpose of this study was to examine the participation motives of children from different sports and examine the reasons why they are continuing or quitting the athletic activity. The study was conducted on 66 girls and 31 boys practicing various sports in Bacau. The average age of the participants was 10.5 years. We constructed a questionnaire to identify the children’s motivation to practice sports, their maintaining interest in practicing sports and the motives they have to quit or change their sport. The subjects were practicing the following sports: badminton, basketball, handball, tennis, combat sports, swimming, dance, volleyball and track and field. Boys spend more time vigorously exercising and competing in competitive sports than girls. The results of the study show that the girls are oriented toward sports that do not expose or harm their body and prefer individual sports or collaborative sports. It can be concluded that based on the average values of each of the participation motives, “to be appreciated by friends and family” and “to be part of a group of friends” were the most important reasons for the subjects. The motives of dropping out of sports appear to be: lack of positive role models, lack of access, safety and transportation issues, social stigma, decreased quality of experience and cost.

Keywords: children, sport, motivation, participation.

16. Inheritance – between the Bible and the Civil Code | View PDF
Author(s): Liviu-Bogdan CIUCĂ
Pages: 169-175


Private law institutions, such as inheritance, marriage, engagement managed to be transmitted through the entire human history, while maintaining their decisive role in forming family ties, or with respect to reasons for property issues. This article aims at approaching a research on the institution of heritage and its customary and legislative transformations, building a bridge in time between the text of the Bible and the Civil Code. The analysis is focused on the importance given to the institution in the two different historical moments, the principles that would govern it, the way to transfer the property right by mortis causa. Thus, it will highlight both surprising similarities and differences arising from the social, legal or religious culture of the time. The method of dividing inheritance, the situation of the surviving husband, the rules of escheat, the existence of forced heir are just some of the issues addressed in the paper, all these analyses leading to an unequivocal conclusion: Inheritance meant and represented, from time immemorial, both an engine for economic development and a strengthening factor for family and social development.

Keywords: inheritance, Bible, civil, Code, analysis.

17. Dependent Activities vs. Independent Activities in Application of VAT Rate to Individuals | View PDF
Author(s): Marta – Claudia CLIZA
Pages: 176-185


Applying the Fiscal Code in reference to the VAT issue to individuals has raised many controversies in practice. This case study is considering the applicability of VAT against an individual who has assigned certain patent rights to a legal entity and then, willingly becoming a VAT payer. In these circumstances, the fiscal authorities calculated penalties between the moment the individual registered as a VAT payer and the moment the VAT would have actually been due. However, it has turned out in court that the VAT was not due at all.

Keywords: VAT, dependent activities, independent activities, courts, fiscal authorities.

18. Causes of Poverty – What Do the Poor Think? Poverty Attribution and Its Behavioural Effects | View PDF
Author(s): Silvia COJANU*, Cristina STROE
Pages: 186-197


The manner in which we conceptualize any aspect of reality impacts on the way we address it. Thus, causal attribution of any problem will determine the solutions we choose for it. In this paper we focus our research on exploring how people think about poverty and its causes in Romania. We want to identify potential differences in the causal attributions of poverty, considering both society as a whole and the view of the group of persons that are, in fact, confronted to this phenomenon. Thus, in our study, we analyse comparatively both the national perspective and the specific perspective of the vulnerable group of the beneficiaries of guaranteed minimum income (Law no. 416 of 2001 regarding the guaranteed minimum income, with changes and completions). We analyse data and information of thematic Eurobarometers, but also primary and very recent data collected through a survey with national statistic representativity for the social aid beneficiaries (guaranteed minimum income) – October 2016. We referred the data to the most commonly used taxonomy of poverty causes identified in the scientific literature, consisting of three categories – individualistic attribution, fatalistic attribution and structural causal attribution. In order to better understand the relation between the perceptions of poverty causes and the behaviour of the poor, we analysed them in connection to the three characteristics applied in the scientific literature on poverty attribution analysis: locus, stability and controllability.

Keywords: Poverty, poverty causes, poverty attribution, perceptions, mental framing.

19. Competitiveness Analysis of the Romanian Economy | View PDF
Author(s): Adriana DIMA (GIRNEATA)*, Monica NEDELCU
Pages: 198-209


Given the extension of globalization, a major strategic objective of advanced countries is to maintain a high level of competitiveness of the economy. This is achieved through policies of revitalizing national industry based inter alia on a permanent contribution of knowledge, at the technological frontier, provided by their own system of innovation or attracted from abroad. Competitiveness is inextricably linked to the performance in the area of creation, development and dissemination of technological innovations. The quality management of the national innovation system is crucial on medium and long term, as no achievement is obtained immediately, any progress is possible only by ensuring synergies between actors, strategies and policies, competitive advantages or friendly environment. Economy and industry performance analysis cannot be dissociated from internal and external influences that have contributed over time to guiding development strategies and their implementation. The current research presents an analysis of the Romanian economy based on data included in the global competitiveness reports, recent studies and personal contributions. Serious deficiencies are found in the basic requirements group, particularly with regard to institutions and infrastructure, which have a negative effect on “efficiency enhancers’ sub-index, especially on the education system, labour and goods. The mentioned influences affect the performance of sophistication and innovation factors, but also the whole system, namely the national economy.

Keywords: competitiveness; SWOT analysis; global competitiveness index; pillars of competitiveness.

20. Sacred Art, a Core Value in the Cultural-Artistic Rethinking and Visual Practice | View PDF
Author(s): Georgeta Merişor DOMINTE*, Marina VRACIU, Bogdan COJOCEA, Stelian ONICA
Pages: 210-219


In a postmodern world which hosts a mix of cultural values, Sacred Art brings into focus the sublimation of the form of representation. This makes Sacred Art a core value in the cultural-artistic rethinking and in the visual practice. On the other hand, in its relationship to society, the moral component supported by Sacred Art in Christianity represents a core value which offers cultural and artistic rethinking and visual practice a chance for spiritual revigoration. For over two decades, the Faculty of Orthodox Theology of the “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” in Iaşi has shaped and developed artistic and heritage preservation skills to generations of students educated to protect the Chruch Heritage and revive Sacred Art. The study of art history involeved in this process brings in signs of the sacred from around the world which show a constancy in their choice of location, shape and their function of signalling the presence of the sacred, which relies on their aesthetic component. Sacred Art has empowered the core human need of the sacred as related to certain locations in the world and to the very places where it is taught and practiced. This paper presents some of the results – in their theoretical and applied aspects – with reference to iconographic art and its weight in the professional training of those who can continue to create, protect and remake (by conservation and restauration) mostly heritage items. Some activities, forms of artistic expression and implications to support preservation of objects as accomplished by students and graduates of our division have been chosen to illustrate this aspect. The purpose of the work is to bring into discussion the role and place of sacred art in today’s society, where it rests a moral and a cultural landmark.

Keywords: Sacred Art; core value; rethinking cultural-artistic practice; transitoriness; permanence; sacred geography; heritage preservation; visual artistic education.

21. Truth and Error in the Dispute between Hobbes and Descartes on Meditations on First Philosophy | View PDF
Author(s): Marius DUMITRESCU
Pages: 220-229


When Thomas Hobbes commented on Descartes’ Meditations on first philosophy in 1641, he was in his mature age, and the theoretical directions of his own worldview were probably already fully engaged. In this paper, I argue that Hobbesian objections to Descartes’ Meditations reveal the philosophical thoughts of the English thinker. What seems to bind both thinkers is the idea of ego seen as a principle. But an essential difference could be traced between the two philosophical visions. For Descartes, the ego is a theoretical principle, a metaphysical one, while Hobbes thinks to it in an instrumental way, in terms of human action on which it is based. Hobbes’ egoism is radical because the self is the only instance that determines and justifies the action. For Hobbes, an error couldn’t be the result of limitations of the cognitive faculties as Descartes understood it, but rather the result of a failure in the action plan. In the English philosopher’s thinking, the passions of the ego reflects the engine of human fulfillment and the sign of a strong mind, able to engage in real life and to assume a destiny. So, any action that leads to a victory is an obvious sign of her successful validation. A failed action signifies the existence of a false idea behind it, and this false idea is consider to be the result of weak passions that are inadequate to reality. By reading the Meditations, Hobbes defined his own thinking that could no longer accept the Cartesian dualism and replaced it with a new monistic philosophy in which he gave reality only to the sensitive world. The truth became an issue more related to a practical approach than to one with a contemplative, theoretical facet. The classical dispute between Descartes and Hobbes on one of the central subjects in philosophy which is truth can be interpreted as an incipient form, avant la lettre, of a philosophical Brexit by which nominalistic Anglo-Saxon thinking defined its originality and independence in relation to the continental philosophy dominated by Thomism and Cartesianism.

Keywords: truth, error, Hobbes, ego, action.

22. Metaphorical Perceptions of Turkish EFL Students about Themselves: The Sample of Kafkas University | View PDF
Author(s): Gencer ELKILIC
Pages: 230-242


The aim of this study was to determine the metaphorical perceptions of Turkish EFL students about themselves and to group them according to common features. In order to collect data qualitative data collection technique was used. To this end, forms containing prompts “students are like………………, because they……….” were given to the participants and requested to fill in them. As a result of the data collected from 160 students, 153 valid metaphors were determined and they were divided into seven conceptual categories as: 1) Student as Something/Somebody to be Given a Shape , 2) Student as a Plant/Tree , 3) Student as Somebody/Something Obedient, 4) Student as an Animal, 5) Students as Something/Somebody to be Fixed/Cured, 6) Student as Something Bright, and finally, 7) Student as Somebody/Something Pure/Good or Somebody/Something Bad/Deceiving. Most frequently repeated metaphors were as baby/child (f=15, 12, 0%), empty box/page(f=9, 07, 2 %), soil/garden (f=8, 06,4 %), flower (f=8, 06,4 %), laborer (f=7, 05,6%), sapling (f=6, 04,8 %), patient (f=6, 04,8 %), angel (f=6, 04,8 %), sheep (f=5, 04,0 %) seed (f=5, 04,0 %), tree (f=5, 04,0 %), and innocent person (f=5, 04,0 %), respectively.

Keywords: Metaphor, conceptual category, EFL students, Kafkas University.

23. Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Vagus Nerve Stimulation in the Treatment of Heart Failure | View PDF
Author(s): Cristina FURNICA, Raluca Ozana CHISTOL*, Mihaela GRECU, Mihaela TOMAZIU-TODOSIA, Grigore TINICA
Pages: 243-256


The vagus nerve, the longest cranial nerve, mixed, with both motor and sensitive components, innervates the structures derived from the last two pharyngeal arches and constitutes the main efference of the cranial parasympathetic system, presenting the widest distribution in the human body. Vagus nerve dysfunction is encountered in several cardiac diseases including atrial fibrillation (AFib) and heart failure. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) may slow or cancel pathophysiological processes involved in heart failure development. The aim of the current study was to perform a meta-analysis of the available data obtained in a clinical setting for VNS in heart failure patients in order to establish a potential benefit in terms of cardiac function. The authors performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of available data published between January 2010 – April 2017 by searching the Medline database using “vagus nerve stimulation” and “heart failure” as keywords. From 116 identified studies, only 4 met the inclusion criteria after abstract analysis. The four identified studies (2 randomized, 2 non-randomized) evaluated the effect of VNS in patients 18 years-old with NYHA functional class II-III heart failure due to various causes and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. The two randomized trials failed to demonstrate a significant improvement of mortality rate, functional remodelling or functional capacity in symptomatic heart failure patients compared to the two non-randomized trials that displayed promising results on small and biased study groups. Their observed benefits in quality of life have to be interpreted with caution given the subjective nature and lack patient blindness. In conclusion, prior to new clinical studies, the specific site, intensity and duration of adequate stimulation should be identified together with a method of isolating the efferent vagal fibres in order to avoid cross-stimulation and side-effects.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, heart failure, vagus nerve stimulation, NYHA class.

24. Applying the Multidimensional Theory for the Romanian Political Parties in Austrian Bucovina (Last Decade of 19th Century – Second Decade
of 20th Century) | View PDF
Author(s): Vlad GAFIŢA*
Pages: 257-269


Along with liberalism, the nationalism is among the greatest ideologies that have configured, redefined and transformed European society at the turn of the XVIIIth and the XIXth centuries. In the last decades of the 19th century, the Romanian national movement from Austrian Bukovina turned from cultural stage into political phasis. Initially, Romanian political organizations were included into federalist or autonomist currents from Austro-Hungarian Empire. Politically, according to multidimensional theory, Romanian parties belong to the cleavage entitled Center/ Periphery, but also Church-State and Employers-Workers cleavages. Indigenous political formations have often collaborated with allogenic parties in national, social, economic, political or cultural matters. Relating to one-dimensional theory of parties, Romanian political groups may be encountered both in the center-right and center-left wings. On 28 of November 1918, the Romanian national movement of emancipation attended the goal of unification with the Romanian Kingdom. After this point, the Romanian political parties from Bukovina had to integrate into the political scene of Great Romania. Some suppressed themselves, others were assimilated into other parties from Old Romanian Kingdom.

Keywords: nationalism, multidimensional theory, one-dimensional theory, political parties, Romanians.

25. The New Regulation of Public-Private Partnership Contract in Romanian Legislation. Critical Analysis | View PDF
Author(s): Simona Petrina GAVRILĂ, Ştefania Cristina MIRICĂ*
Pages: 270-283


The concept of public – private partnership has generated interest worldwide due to the need for public services associated with the need to limit public spending that is seen as an alternative for the development of major projects or public service delivery typically developed or provided by the public sector. Legal regulation of this institution has experienced a tortuous in Romania since the adoption of Ordinance no. 16/2002 and Law no. pending. 233/2006, which seeks to respect the best practices recognized at EU level in the field, and to implement a legislative framework able to effectively enable public and private sectors cooperation for implementation of projects covering public works or services. This paper aims at checking how the adoption of the new law that is Law no. 233/2006 of the Romanian legislator has achieved goals.

Keywords: Contract, public – private partnership, public administration, cooperation.

26. Contemporary Ecclesial Priorities of Social Involvement. A Romanian Orthodox Perspective | View PDF
Author(s): Ionut Adrian GHIBANU*
Pages: 284-296


Social engagement is an urgent need of our world. For the Church, social involvement is part of its missionary vocation, because it is not only an eschatological purpose, but also a temporal, earthly one. It aims primarily to create communion and human solidarity, as an expression and understanding of experience of the divine presence, but also as a necessity of life, as a fundamental need to help each other. We were created by the same single God, we all share, regardless of race, colour, gender, education and religion, the same humanity that we customize specifically, so we have to be sensitive to the needs of those around us. From its very beginning, the Christian Church was involved in social activities, initiating the very first institutions for social assistance such as: hospitals, orphanages, nursing homes, with free care without discrimination of beneficiaries. Furthermore, the first free public schools appeared under religious patronage. Today, the Romanian Orthodox Church is concerned with social involvement, as in its entire history, having such priorities as: helping those who are unable to support their own existence; integration of migrants into society; supporting the education of children whose parents have emigrated abroad; supporting social equity through direct community initiatives, including legislation; promoting solidarity and social communion; supporting youth education for dialogue, openness to the needs of the neighbour; and promoting the common values of humanity

Keywords: social, church, orthodox, solidarity, contemporaneity.

27. Students’ Perception Concerning Gender Equality as a Strong Responsible Research and Innovation Dimension | View PDF
Author(s): Gabriel GORGHIU*, Ana Maria Aurelia PETRESCU, Laura Monica GORGHIU, Crinela DUMITRESCU
Pages: 297-307


In education, the gender equality (which lets to ensure educational equality between boys and girls) have sparked great interest and provoked intensive discussions amongst various education stakeholders since ancient times. Thus, from the historical perspective, the traditional pedagogy – the magistro-centrist paradigm – was performed differently, in relation to gender dimension, taking also into account aspects related to differentiation of the education in report to social, political, economic and cultural context. Several aspects concerning the differentiation of the educational phenomenon – in relation to gender dimension – envisage: access of individuals to various forms of education, learning contents that include messages that leverages explicitly or implicitly gender characteristics, school performances in different subjects, forms of organization and duration of studies towards a particular career, valences of teachers who train girls or boys. In this respect, the paper aims to identify the students’ perceptions about gender equality and its valuing in the own educational routes. More, the level of understanding of the gender dimension as part of the Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) paradigm is explored. A questionnaire containing 4 items was designed and applied to students enrolled in different university professional paths, but who are also involved in the psycho-pedagogical study programme (level I). In addition, the students were introduced in the RRI processes, with the view to emphasize its importance for the needs and expectations of the actual society.

Keywords: gender equality, gender dimension, Responsible Research and Innovation, IRRESISTIBLE Project, ENGAGE Project.

28. Bringing RRI in Science Lessons – Challenges and Benefits for Students in Learning Process | View PDF
Author(s): Laura Monica GORGHIU*, Mihai BIZOI, Ana Maria Aurelia PETRESCU, Gabriel GORGHIU
Pages: 308-317


Nowadays the mankind is facing more and more difficult problems concerning the environment and life quality that ask for more and more people involved to solve them. In this context, education has a special role to bring in attention the importance of Science knowledge in each individual’s development. Thus, there is very important to increase the students’ interest and motivation to learn more about the Science and Technology and how to this in their daily life. One of the new concepts introduced in Science education was Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) with the hope that involving teachers and students in understanding the role of RRI dimensions we’ll obtain sustainable interactions between schools, research institutions, industry, governance and civil society organisations. It was proved that implementation of RRI principles in Science lessons enhance students’ engagement in solving different scientific problems, increase the critical thinking and develop their collaborative skills. Introducing the ethics and governance as RRI dimensions in students’ attention will develop their responsibility for solving the complex problems of our world. Due to these benefits, European Union decided to finance different projects to implement RRI in Science Education. One of those projects was the ENGAGE Project (“Equipping the Next Generation for Active Engagement in Science Equipping the Next Generation”,, developed in the frame of Seventh Framework Programme. This paper presents the students’ opinion obtained at the end of the ENGAGE project in Romania, during the ENGAGE RRI Festival held in Targoviste, on March 3rd, 2017.

Keywords: interactive-participative teaching strategies, RRI, Science education, students’ opinion, ENGAGE project.

29. The Romanian, Bulgarian and Hungarian Economic Diplomacy in the Context of EU-USA Bilateral Negotiations | View PDF 
Author(s): Ioana GUTU*
Pages: 318-329


The concept of economic diplomacy is rather new for the practitioners of the traditional foreign policy of the states across the Globe. From an European perspective in the context of the currently negotiated free trade agreement with the USA, this emerging diplomatic type becomes the central point of the national 28 Member States Agendas, situation that is also valid for Romania and its two EU neighbors – Bulgaria and Hungary. Even though form an economic point of view these three European countries don’t share similarities concerning their transatlantic relations with USA, the three diplomatic agendas and the internal institutional structure is similar. The outcome of practicing a fair economic diplomacy on the American territory follows the same aim – attracting investments, promoting trade and the internationalization of the small-and-medium –sized enterprises. Even if the negotiations of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) are not close to be ended, these three countries seem to have acquired one of the most valuable lessons –replacing the traditional diplomacy with technology and new practice styles, together with reorienting the activity of the national responsible institutions towards international actions, transatlantic actions.

Keywords: EU, US, diplomacy.

30. The TTIP and Its Potential Effects over the Labor Force in the European Union | View PDF
Author(s): Ioana GUTU*
Pages: 330-339


The traditional relation between the European Union (EU) and the United States of America (USA) emerged in 2013 under the form of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) negotiations. After numerous rounds of talks, and taking into consideration the current political developments that characterize both of the powers involved, it appears that the process of reaching an agreement has unofficially stopped. Aiming towards a total liberalization of the transatlantic trade, the potential effects of the completely negotiated TTIP would affect the labor force on both sides of the Atlantic, both from the legal and administrative point of view. This situation could be developed in accordance to each of the 28 Member States current trade and investment situation with the USA, while for the other partner, the number of jobs created as a result of TTIP will reflect the individual trade situation of each of the 50 federal states with the European Union. If fully negotiated, ratified and implemented, TTIP is susceptible of creating over two million jobs on both sides of the Atlantic, the winners of the process comprising both the large and small economies that will encourage the export activities of the small and medium sized entreprizes. With an ongoing Brexit process, followed by the political instability from the EU territory, and adding the instability of the decisional process of the USA Administration, the negotiation of TTIP appears, at least for the following four years, as an impossible task to achieve.

Keywords: EU, US, TTIP, Jobs.

31. The ‘Fallen Woman’ Motif in Two Plays by Oscar Wilde | View PDF
Author(s): Nicoleta-Mariana IFTIMIE*
Pages: 340-352


In order to place Oscar Wilde’s interpretation of gender stereotypes and gender roles in a proper context, we should view it against the doctrine of the ‘separation of spheres’, which was prevalent in Victorian England. According to this doctrine, a woman was restricted within the confines of the domestic or private sphere, being attributed the roles of wife and mother. Women who conformed to the ideal wife and mother stereotype were also eulogized on stage, while those who departed from the norm were regarded as outcasts and were shut off from fashionable society. The ‘fallen woman’ motif is apparent in Wilde’s society comedies. The characters that seem to embody this stereotype are Mrs. Erlynne in “Lady Windermere’s Fan” and Mrs. Arbuthnot in “A Woman of No Importance.” Each of them tries to hide a ‘shameful secret’: Mrs. Erlynne, the apparent homewrecker and seductress, wants to conceal her former abandonment of husband and child in favour of a lover who abandoned her later on; Mrs Arbuthnot, the stern woman and dutiful mother, tries to conceal the fact that she had been seduced by Lord Illingworth in her youth and had given birth to an illegitimate son. This study focuses on the two characters mentioned above in order to show the way in which Wilde exploited conventional gender roles and stereotypes, by playing the double game of conforming to and at the same time departing from expected conventions.

Keywords: Lady Windermere’s Fan, A Woman of No Importance, the fallen woman, the shameful secret, motherhood.

32. Kosovo Conflict and its Impact on European Security and Stability | View PDF
Author(s): Raluca Iulia IULIAN*
Pages: 353-363


In the international context created after the end of the Cold War the inter-ethnic and inter-religious conflicts are one of the main threats to the European and international security and stability. The conflicts appeared in the ex-Yugoslav and ex-Soviet spaces. The constructivist theory shows that people actively construct or create their own subjective representations of the objective reality. Knowledge is based on personal experiences and hypotheses of the environment. The conflict appeared between the Orthodox Serbs and the Muslim Albanians in the province of Kosovo. In the course of time the Muslim Albanians became a majority in the province. The Orthodox Serbs consider that Kosovo is a historical province of Serbia because there is the place of the Kosovo Polje Battle (1389), important moment in Serbs history. Although the battle was a defeat for the Serbs, they wanted this moment to be celebrated as a national day thanks to the bravery that they showed during the fight. Also, Kosovo represents the core of the Serb feudal state. The Kosovo conflict (1999) has led to the appearance of a new state on the map of Europe, Kosovo. It was recognized only by a part of the international community. The Kosovo conflict represents a dangerous precedent. This fact has important consequences for the European stability and security because the European states comprise a large mosaic of ethnicities and religions. The paper aims to analyze the impact of the Kosovo conflict on the European security and stability environment. The study is based on the comparative analysis of the press articles and the literature from March 1989 which represents the moment of the revocation of Kosovo’s autonomy until February 2017.

Keywords: inter-ethnic and inter-religious conflict, security and stability, province.

33. Homo Pulsator, or an Outline for a Phenomenology of Beating | View PDF
Author(s): Ivan IVLAMPIE*
Pages: 364-374


This paper aims to investigate a behaviour which, along with many others, is decisive in understanding human nature. Together with zoon politicon, homo homini lupus, homo faber and homo ludens, which describe trajectories of the human destiny, homo pulsator or the human being beating or bullying another human may be equally invoked as relevant in this respect. In this study, we provide a phenomenological description of this strange human behaviour; this is not a sociological perspective (which can allow us to analyse the phenomenon only as a form of anomie), nor a psychological or anthropological approach (directions that open up an interpretation starting from the decisive thesis of our aggressive nature), but a cultural perspective: beating as a cultural institution. What does this perspective mean? To understand this behaviour as one consciously set. From the perspective of Aristotelian determinism, the phenomenology of beating cannot be understood without its final causality. What is the purpose of school beating, as encouraged by the great humanist thinkers? Or of beating as a form of public punishment or as a means of torture? By asking and answering such questions, we sketch the main lines of the phenomenology of this bizarre behaviour of human beings.

Keywords: homo pulsator; human behaviour; institution; education; punishment.

34. Ethical Egoism, a Failure of Moral Theories | View PDF
Author(s): Viviana IVLAMPIE*
Pages: 375-384


This article aims to regard selfishness as a human conduct, as a norm of human behaviour. Selfishness is analysed as a psychological trait and as a moral norm. There are two perspectives in its research: psychological and normative. The first perspective has two sides. In its hard version, the psychological theory considers that a human being is motivated by and centred on herself / himself. According to this theory, even if their motivation is masked by good intentions, by duties or obligations, people always act in their own interests. The soft version of psychological egoism supports the possibility of an altruistic behaviour, but argues that the choice of action is an act of will of its agent. This leads to an end just because the agent wants it, for reasons that serve her / his own interest. The second perspective, of normative selfishness, claims that the agent of an action considers himself / herself as the most important entity. This theory appears in two forms: rational egoism and ethical egoism. As rational egoism claims, promoting personal interests is always justified and is in agreement with reason. There are also situations in which personal interests may come into disagreement with reason, which weaken the theory. Ethical egoism claims that the assertion of self-interest is consistent with morality. The main principle of behaviour is the one of self-interest that aggregates all the natural duties and natural obligations of the human being.
Understanding the fact that human beings are similar to one another and that we should care for the others makes the theory of ethical egoism fail as a moral theory.

Keywords: ethics, psychological egoism, normative egoism.

35. The Relationship between Adolescents’ Emotional and Spiritual Intelligence | View PDF
Author(s): Emil LAZĂR*
Pages: 385-393


The human personality presupposes the existence of common constitutive factors, which are allowing a description and classification unit in this view of human beings that define the personality of each human subject in hand [2] the basic characteristics remain relatively constant over time and independent of context and place in which the person acts. It can easily notice that most of the papers fail attention about spiritual intelligence considering no more than a syncretistic approach and vision. Literature dealing with emotional intelligence includes numerous empirical evidence related to “meetings” between the emotional and social functioning and school environment. This paper aims is to answer the interrogation related to the relationship between emotional intelligence and spiritual intelligence in adolescent’s high school, pursuing educational and other aspects influenced by the consequences of this relationship (behaviours, school adjustment).

Keywords: intelligences; emotional intelligence; spiritual intelligence; adolescents.

36. Institutions of Central Government. Substantiation of Their Activity in Romania | View PDF
Author(s): Oana Elena LENŢA*, Anca CIURSĂ
Pages: 394-403


Regardless of the form of organization of the state, in order to reach a certain level of development and cohesion, this one must have a well consolidated administration. Central and local governance represent subsystems of the global social system, and the identification of the relationship between the public governance and the other components of the social system enable the outlining and understanding of the mission of the public governance. A dynamic governance is generated by the social, economic and political dynamics, therefore, in the present paper, we will focus on the fact that the administration and, in particular, public governance represents an overall complex that must comply with requirements of the society and of the citizen. The paper will be presented in the form of a dictionary term in which it underlines exclusively the conceptual framework, namely in legal, economic, political, social terms, etc., the mode of organization, the characteristics and functions, the principles and performance criteria in order to outline an overview with regard to the importance and the need for a coherent organisation. In conclusion we will also present some considerations upon the bureaucratic apparatus in Romania in order to suggest some potential ways to improve it.

Keywords: Social dynamics, administration, efficiency, proficiency.

37. Influence of Body Mass Index over the Youngsters’ Motion | View PDF
Author(s): Nicoleta LEONTE, Ofelia POPESCU, Adrian PRICOP, Iancu RĂCHITĂ*

Pages: 404-412


Motion can be defined as a voluntary motor activity, becoming, through exercise, an involuntary, automatic and stereotyped motor activity. By motion, body continuously adapts to the supporting surface and the surrounding environment. Motion is a physical activity that slightly affects the respiratory and circulatory functions, produces a general body relaxation and contributes to keeping a correct posture. Any weight excess (overweight, obesity or physical load) impacts adversely the motion mechanism, generating the occurrence a deficient body posture, with effects over the spine. The work subject is to underline the BMI (body mass index) impact over the motion to youngsters. The research methods are the following: the bibliographic documentation, the observation method, the experimental method, the statistical and mathematical method, the graphic method. The research subjects (n=7) are students of the “Polytechnic” University of Bucharest, with the average age of 19.85 years old. The variables on which this research relied are: the anthropometric measurements (weight, height, BMI), the motion indicators (contact area, plantar pressure, maximum force), as obtained through computerized analysis, using the PedarX System. The results obtained show an inverse correlation between BMI and the contact area (-0.629), as well as strong correlations between the contact area and the maximum force on the right leg (0.853), respectively on the left leg (0.981), between the plantar pressure and the maximum force on the right leg (0.973), respectively on the left leg (0.873), and between the plantar pressure and the left foot contact area (0.876), respectively the right foot contact area (0.778). Data show that BMI can be considered a co-variable of the health condition, any changes in the body weight affecting adversely the osteomuscular and ligamental apparatus.

Keywords: Body Mass Index, motion, youngsters, computerized techniques.

38. Evaluation of Music Education: Musical Competences and Self-confidence in Teaching | View PDF
Author(s): Stefanija LESHKOVA ZELENKOVSKA, Aida ISLAM*
Pages: 413-423


This paper refers to the influence of the music curriculum upon music education of the future teachers at the Faculty of Pedagogy in Skopje, R. Macedonia. The academy program is very important for developing musical competences, thereby self-confidence as essential for self-efficacy in teaching. Given that studying music need more time and continuous practice, the aim was to perceive if the current course provides generalists the necessary knowledge and skills. A research was conducted among the students (N 42) who had finished the internship (2015/16). The descriptive–explicative method which was applied, enabled review of the conditions and the situation. In the research technique, a questionnaire was used as the main tool which comprised dichotomous questions, questions with verbal and scaled answers and a five-point Likert scale of viewpoints. It was designed to perceive their previous music activities, attitude toward music education, and the music experience in class teaching. According to the responses, gender, musical background and the attitude don’t affect the music competences (t=1,141, df(40) p>0.05), (F=0,453, df(40) p>0.05). The acquired musical skills turned out to be the most important (ß = 0,894, p <0,01) in influencing the confidence (R2=0,79, F (1,146) =580,815, p<0,01). Due to the results, students have the justified need for longer lasting music studying and the longer internship in schools. The recommendation is reviewing the curriculum according to useful student insights also as one of the postulates of EU higher education concept.

Keywords: Teacher education, teaching music, musical competence of future teachers.

39. The Early Maladaptive Cognitive Schemas and Personality Traits in Emerging Adulthood | View PDF
Author(s): Violeta LUNGU*, Mihaela STOMFF
Pages: 424-437


The purpose of this research is to identify the relationship between early maladaptive cognitive schemas and the actual tendencies to prolong of teen ageing in contemporary society. There is a psychological research proving the existence of a new developmental stage, the so-called „Millennial Generation – Young Adults Living in Their Parents’ Home”. They are delaying the launching process toward an autonomous adult life, with the traditional developmental tasks, such as finding a stable job, starting a family and having children. According to these studies, some of the possible causes are the reduced social pressure and the possibility to prolong the student-being state for an indefinite period. The present study has also investigated the relationship between early maladaptive cognitive schemas and personality traits (The Big Five model), describing the path through the emerging adulthood. The research was conducted on a group of 212 emerging adults, aged 22-30, highlighting meaningful relationships among personality traits and early maladaptive cognitive schemas. The study also found that these variables are predictors for an autonomous life path versus a prolonged youth.

Keywords: Early Maladaptive Schemas; Five-Factor Personality Traits; Personality Development.

40. The Pseudo Knowledges of Intercultural Communication | View PDF
Author(s): Daniela MACOVEI*
Pages: 438-447


Since mentality is defined as a mode of thinking, it results that a number of paradigms and mechanisms are at use. These are meant to create what runs under the name of ‘reality’. Thus, if a certain mentality is to be changed, it is the process of the construction of this reality that needs to be investigated, understood and, ultimately, altered. In Homi Bhabha’s words, ‘counter knowledges’ are built ‘in medias res’1[p22]. By this, one is to acknowledge that the endeavor is inherently difficult for it needs one to be in the middle of the events and notice the dynamics of the entire working while, at the same time, being able to interfere in it in order to bring about the adjustments wanted. Orientalism is but one of the most prominent cultural and communicational systems of the last centuries that has had a dramatic impact in the global economy of cultural communications. It is this one that the present article will explore while simultaneously presenting counter point reactions to it.

Keywords: knowledge, culture, communication, Orientalism, hybridity.

41. Promoting Interactive Knowledge to Students in Non-formal Education Activities Dedicated to Solar Energy Processes | View PDF
Author(s): Gabriela MĂNTESCU*, Gabriel GORGHIU, Gabriel STATE
Pages: 448-458


In the context of the world evolution and global changing, the education and research have the responsibility to give new contributions for the society, so that future generations can inhabit in a better world. Experts in educational and research areas are committed in this work, having also as target to deliver innovative methods suitable for non-formal education, answering so to the societal challenges. As the large use of renewable energy is seen like a main key for the sustainable development, teaching the secondary school students concerning the basics of renewable energy and its potential, is working in the interest of sustainability, which has already become a special issue and a necessary frame for dissemination and discussion of the relationship between Responsible Research and Innovation and industry. The paper illustrates the way in which interactive knowledge is transferred in non-formal activities dedicated to students, having solar energy as main thematic area. The innovative feature of activities is represented by learning and acceptance of the functionality and advantages of solar energy systems, by direct experimenting in a special research space and power energy production, at the Scientific and Technological Institute of Multidisciplinary Research (ICSTM) of Valahia University Targoviste. The students were introduced in the “solar world”, in order to understand the physical and energetically processes, demonstrated initially at the micro-system level, with the students working individually with educational solar kits, and then validated at the macro-system level, through the interactive graphical demonstrative operating mode of the solar generators integrated into the building.

Keywords: future green solution, solar energy, non-formal education, interactive knowledge, demonstration, IRRESISTIBLE Project.

42. Correctness of Syllogistic Reasoning | View PDF
Author(s): Mircea Adrian MARICA
Pages: 459-469


The syllogistic inferences with cognitive statements are formal structures of thinking researched even from the Greek antiquity and make the subject of logics. The research of the modalities in which ordinary people reason in syllogistic structures is of a much more recent date, since the last century, and make the object of cognitive psychology. Our empirical study aims to investigate the correctness of thinking in various schemes of syllogistic reasoning. For this purpose we applied a set of four questionnaires, comprising 16 syllogisms each, of which 8 with affirmative conclusion and 8 with negative conclusion; 8 modes with universal conclusion, 8 modes with particular conclusion; each questionnaire includes four modes of each syllogistic figure. The first questionnaire contains complete syllogisms in formal expression, which the respondent must evaluate in terms of correctness. The second questionnaire contains the same premises as the first one, but the subjects are required to draw the proper conclusion themselves. Questionnaires 3 and 4 are analogous to the first two, except that this time syllogisms are formulated in natural language. Statistical processing involved comparing the number of correct answers in relation to the variables studied – syllogistic figure, valid/invalid syllogistic mode, affirmative/negative, universal/particular conclusion. The research was replied having been obtained similar results.

Keywords: syllogism; syllogistic modes; syllogistic figures; cognitive psychology.

43. Achievements and Prospects of the Absorption of Structural and Cohesion Funds under the Impact of Global Crises | View PDF
Author(s): Camelia Nicoleta MEDELEANU*, Mihaela Dana IGNAT
Pages: 470-482


Regional development and socio-economic cohesion is macro processes that are involved and engaged in all EU Member States. Romania, a full member on 1 January 2007, could not miss, but the degree of participation and profitability absorption of Structural Funds and Cohesion (FSC) – the main instruments for the implementation of cohesion policy in the Community – is different other countries because it raised the necessities and less possibilities, nor to be reformed so as to be a more active partner and valued in the struggle for development and intra-community cohesion. Romania has the lowest uptake of FSC in the EU at a rate of reimbursement requests in Brussels at the end of March 2016, only 61.57%. In this article we try to disseminate the causes of this low absorption, taking account of experience to date and the imperative for Romania to improve its absorption in 2014-2020.

Keywords: Regional development, social cohesion, structural funds and cohesion, low absorption, regional disparities.

44. A New Approach Integrated for Optimizing the Materials Flow in Production | View PDF
Author(s): Lucia-Violeta MELNIC*, Gabriela IANCULESCU, Andrei-Marian GURAU
Pages: 483-495


The production diversification and flexibility have complicated the activities in the field of production management. In these circumstances, researchers and operational managers feel, increasingly more, lack of an integrated model of synthetic industrial undertaking assigned to “black box” of it, namely the system of production. The mixt programming and allocation problem of production tasks can be dealt with in terms of optimizing the materials flow addressed as a whole in the production system. The present work presents a model for balancing the materials flow, which is based on the formal representation of the materials flow and which introduce elements of certain novelty, as well of matrix flow, the laws of evolution of the materials flow and others. The logic of materials flow formalization allows dynamic adaptive modelling and constitute the basic premise of the problem of programming and the allocation of production tasks. The emergent behavior of materials flow along with the structure of Production Planning System lead to a new logistics concept, that of Adaptive System of Production Planning and this through the development and analysis of material flow formalization elements. The main formalization elements are structured holistically and transdisciplinary as elements linking the operational management of production and operational management of the projects so that the elements of Operational Management of Production Projects.

Keywords: transdisciplinary, knowledge, production, material flow.

45. Alienation and Anomie – the Perverse Effects of Social Empowerment | View PDF
Author(s): Rarita MIHAIL*
Pages: 496-507


With modernity, artificiality is developed: people become aware of the fact that society does not represent a natural grant, a gift from God, but the product of their own actions. On the one side, as a counterweight of artificiality, the modern individuals have uncovered the strength of the social empowerment. They “put” society “in motion”, but their actions and reactions trigger unexpected effects, they multiply, interfere and they develop their own dynamics which contributes inevitably to the empowerment of the processes that they have started. The individuals lose any control they have had over society, and their interventions have unwanted results. Because of its inert artificiality and its structural opacity, society appears to humans as “a second nature” that opposes their plans and that imposes certain constraints. This is the classical theme of alienation: human products become objectified, are dehumanized and end up by opposing their own creators. These alienation phenomena can be connected to the concept of anomie, defined as the distinction between the objective situation generated by the weakening of the normative rules from a certain society and the subjective feeling of confusion and ignorance regarding the means to action, causing thus anxiety. In this article our main focus is to emphasize two well established orientations from which inevitably start all present day approaches related to alienation and anomie in interpreting the effects of the social empowerment. More precisely, we will look on Marx’s alienation theory which emphasizes the human’s impossibility to control his social relationships, and also his estrangement from society (it appears to him as a foreign and hostile power). Instead, Durkheim – who is the creator of the term anomie – lays emphasis on the fact that society in itself has reduced the means to control the individual and his actions.

Keywords: Modernization; social differentiation; work division, alienated work, anomic suicide.

46. Indicators of Motivation and Satisfaction on Students’ Activities | View PDF
Author(s): Simona MINA*
Pages: 508-521


This paper’s main task is to analyse the most important needs of a group of students and, with regard to the didactic activities within universities, in what ways should we correctly report the professors’ motivators to those needs to determine satisfaction in learning. The basic premise of this discussion is that students are not sufficiently challenged by the instruction they receive, resulting in lower levels of achievement by many students. By setting more rigorous standards for students, it is hoped that the general level of student achievement will rise, thus better preparing students for post-secondary educational opportunities and employment. By changing the nature of the instruction that students receive, the assumption is that students will not only learn more, but they will be more actively engaged in their learning, thus retaining a higher proportion of what they learn. The research instrument contains a total of 13 items, variable in terms of typology, constructed to investigate satisfaction, perspective and opinion on the appropriateness of the decision to pursue a maritime career. The questionnaire was administered via computer with students from all years of study at Constanta Maritime University. Analysis was conducted on a total of 179 students at Constanta Maritime University. The paper’s conclusions, identified from the research, focus on adapting the curricula content to the students’ needs.

Keywords: motivation, satisfaction, educational reform, evaluation of students, satisfiers in education.

47. Sport in the Lives of the Artists | View PDF
Author(s): Raluca MINEA*
Pages: 522-526


This paper aims to highlight the connection between sport and art. Sport has been an inspiration for artists in all periods of history, at first in a contemplative manner, and then in the context of the evolution of the new artistic fields, both in visual arts and in theatre and dance. The connection with sport field has developed since the artist got more and more involved in specific activities, and moreover, has become a necessity to compensate the abilities acquired through static actions. More than that, artists in general are prone to injuries of the spine due to the bad postures held for long periods of time during work.

Keywords: sport, artist, history, art, perception.

48. Tolerance as Core Value and Communication Principle  | View PDF
Author(s): Elina MINNULLINA*, Zhanna VAVILOVA
Pages: 527-538
The purpose of this paper is to study the phenomenon of tolerance as an ethical and communication principle. There are some risks of appealing to tolerance. It can be argued that moral relativism does not allow for justification of norms of tolerance. One of the consequences of taking tolerance as the fundamental principle of interactions is that it can turn into a cultural separatism that alienates people. In total accord with the idea that relativistic tolerance makes criticism impossible, we would like to further develop the concept of tolerance and to consider a different angle. Relativistic interpretation of this notion leads to an ambiguous position, when tolerance does not lead to stabilizing relationships, but conditions separation between people, arbitrariness, and permissiveness, including admissibility of social injustice. We could call such kind of behavior a «seeming tolerance» that is replacing in reality the concepts of indifference and passive concession.

Keywords:  rational tolerance; justice; communicative action; dialogue; moral principle. 

49. The Extraterrestrial Environment – an Axiological PerspectiveView PDF
Author(s): Lucian MOCREI REBREAN*
Pages: 539-547
Through human exploration the extraterrestrial space becomes more and more the subject of an anthropological debate. The purpose of this article is to connect axiological thinking with the ethics of human activities related to space exploration. In this context, when debating upon the ability of natural objects to possess value, the distinction between the source of value and the object of value or the “locus” of value is essential. If we deliberate strictly in favour of the valorising subject, the exterior nature is always in danger of losing its intrinsic value. Only to the extent that natural objects are values in themselves, regardless if any human subject is valorising them, the so-called naturalistic fallacy in locating value, the confusion between its source and object can be prevented from the start. These difficulties can be surmounted by stating that all value, human and nonhuman is ontologically located within the natural world. The existence of a plurality of irreducible values makes it possible for judgements of value to be justified independently of the appeal to human preferences. The concept of intrinsic value can be directly attributed to entities belonging to extraterrestrial nature only provided we accept that intrinsic values can be both concrete and plural. Seen through the prism of an objectivist meta-ethics, extraterrestrial space can be described as a new environment where values subsist without any reference to human valorisation/experimentation, awaiting their exploration and discovery.

Keywords: natural value, meta-ethics, intrinsic value, naturalistic fallacy, extraterrestrial environment.

50. Aspects of Applied Ethics in the Spiritual Autobiographies from the Orthodox Space in the 19th and 20th Centuries View PDF
Author(s): Iuliu-Marius MORARIU*
Pages: 548-557
Despite its importance for contemporary theology, spiritual autobiography hasn’t been highlighted enough in the Orthodox Theology until now. This is the reason why this article’s aim is to bring into attention this important genre of the Orthodox Theology and to highlight some of its particular aspects. Thus, in this research, we will emphasise the way in which the most important aspects of applied ethics are presented by authors such as Saint John of Kronstadt, Saint Silouan the Athonite, but also by other authors of memoires and autobiographical works, which contain aspects of spiritual autobiographies. We will try to present how they see the neighbour in their works, their position as to moral and ethical principles, and what they think about social, moral and bioethical issues such as suicide, birth or death. We will also try to compare their ideas with those of other authors of spiritual autobiographies from the same period, but from other confessional spaces (e. g. Catholic or Protestant), in order to create bridges between the Orthodox Christian spirituality and other Christian spiritualties. Then, we will try to highlight the actuality of their thoughts and markings and to see how their ideas can be used in Theological research and in everyday life by a simple faithful. In conclusion, the research will try both to bring into attention an area of research that hasn’t been investigated and to offer an interesting and useful approach for the everyday life of the contemporary Christian.
Keywords: Saint Silouan the Athonite, Saint John of Kronstadt, journals and memoires, autobiographies, moral and applied ethics

51. Improvement of Coordination Abilities through Dancesport among Middle Schoolers  | View PDF
Author(s): Cristina Elena MORARU*
Pages: 558-565
In the process of educating body stance included within aesthetic-artistic education, dance occupies an important role because it embodies harmoniously music, movement, and coordination between the two. The purpose of the paper is to contribute to the education of coordination abilities of middle schoolers in order for them to obtain a correct and harmonious body stance. The sample for this research comprised 16 female students aged between 10 and 14; I followed their evolution throughout a school year and the progress achieved regarding the education of coordination abilities. Practices comprised steps and step structures specific to dancesport, such as slow waltz, Viennese waltz, quickstep, samba, and cha-cha. The tests applied to the group were as follows: the test for skill speed (relay), the rhythm test, the Matorin test, and the motor memory test. Upon interpreting the results, it is worth pointing out an improvement of average values and standard deviation in relay from 19.685 ±0.913 to 19.064 ±0.842, an increase in grades to the rhythm test from 9.06 ± 0.771 to 9.75± 0.447, and an improvement of average values to the motor memory test from 8.18 ± 0.75 to 9.12 ± 0.619. To the Matorin test performed leftwards, an evolution of the average was observed from 345.714 ±31.735 to 362.5 ±27.368, and to the one performed rightwards, the mean value increased from 351.071 ± 24.975 to 371.428 ± 17.697. As a general conclusion, it may be stated that the means of dancesport contributed to the education of certain coordination abilities, which stands to confirm the hypothesis of this study.

Keywords: Motricity, coordination, optimization, dancesport.

 52. The Human Body – Between Past and Present, the New Self and Body-Self | View PDF
Author(s): Constantin PEHOIU*, Cristian Florian SAVU
Pages: 566-577
The body was both subject and object of the study, analysis and discussion over time for scientists, if we accept the idea that they were at the beginnings of humanity. This statement is supported by the many written and unwritten sources, possibilities to perform movements were the main factor in meeting the necessities of biological, physiological, spiritual, and entertainment specific to humans. Practice of physical exercises to train body image reached the current stage of development of society is the result of multiple determinations, of which seems necessary to highlight the importance of three ones: continued development of formal and non-formal, creating free time as permanent social reality, intense movement and changing specific values of the phenomenon, supported by modern conditions of civilization. Thus, we find that today many individuals of both genders are unsatisfied by their physical appearance, in particular by the size and shape of own bodies. From this point of view it is to distinguish women who are most concerned to change this, most often through diet or using extreme methods of weight control, including starvation, elimination of voluntary food intake, diuretics or laxative abuse and applying exercise programs incompatible with their preparation. This paper aims to demonstrate that physical activity, carried out systematically through a fitness program, contributes directly to the improvement of the structure and functions of various organs and systems of the body. This approach of the problem leads mostly to eat disorder incidence much higher among them than men, which means that it is useful image issues of the body and nutrition lie on a continuum, depending on their severity.

Keywords: body, esteem, content, dissatisfaction, ideal.

 53. A Few Considerations Concerning Latin And Slavic Influences On The Development Of Noun Inflection In Contemporary Romanian | View PDF
Author(s): Cipriana-Elena PEICA*
Pages: 578-586
The Romanian language is the representative of the Latin language spoken continuously from the time of the Roman rule in the Eastern Roman Empire until today. Latin has changed, has evolved under the influence of the native populations of Dacia and the Balkan Peninsula or of the populations coming from other regions and settled in the Danube regions. All these changes are reflected in texts showing that vulgar or spoken Latin underlying the Romanian language is not different from the Latin spoken in other Roman provinces. The evolution of Latin is reflected in all areas of grammar, from the phonological system to the morphological and syntactic system. In this paper, we will focus on the influences of Latin and Slavic languages on noun inflection in Romanian; we will also focus on the reversed situation, namely on how the particularities of the Romanian language influenced, in turn, Slavic languages such as Bulgarian. Therefore, we will address two linguistic systems that are different, but which are interlinked and mutually influenced. We will refer to analytical declension, synthetic declension, articulated and non-articulated forms of nouns, and prepositions, in a desire to present a few particularities of the two linguistic systems that explain how Latin and Slavic influences are reflected in noun inflection in contemporary Romanian.

Keywords: noun, Roman, Balkan, Latin, inflection.

54. Verbal Clichés and Their Use in Everyday Speech – a Few Semantic, Syntactic and Pragmatic Considerations | View PDF 
Author(s): Cipriana-Elena PEICA*
Pages: 587-596
The complexity of the human language manifested through the multiple forms of transmitting a message in a communication was, is and will be perceived by the speakers of a language, but at the same time it was, is and will be studied by linguists in general, and by pragmatists in particular. The major differences between what is said through a linguistic material and what is actually intended to be conveyed, and the countless ways in which this can be achieved are a rich study material. Linguistic ambiguities in daily conversations are also created due to verbal clichés which are so widely used in daily, political, and media discourse. In this paper, we will refer both to meaning, context and ambiguity, the three essential elements for the creation, conveyance, reception and especially interpretation of a message, and to the importance of the semantic, morphological, syntactic and pragmatic features in the formulation of verbal clichés, in the formation of the wooden language.

Keywords: linguistic clichés, wooden language, syntactic, pragmatic, everyday speech.

 55. Relationship between Self-Actualization and Loneliness in Young Adults | View PDF
Author(s): Carolina PERJAN, Sergiu SANDULEAC*, Victoria PLĂMĂDEALĂ
Pages: 597-610
The present study is aimed to test the relationship between loneliness and self-actualization of young adults. Three different instruments of loneliness investigation for a total 8 scale were completed by a sample of young adults, based on a Moldovan university-student sample of 304 participants aged 20 to 25 years (m=22.59, SD=2.07). The integrated research of phenomenon of loneliness uses the benefits of one-dimensional scales as well as the benefits of the multidimensional scales with the reference to the type of the loneliness. To make an emphasis on the integrated approach of the loneliness in research it was used both, one-dimensional and multidimensional scales. One-dimensional scale UCLA correlates with self-actualization factors: time ration, self-regard, human values, spontaneity, sociability, nature of mankind, flexibility. Subscales of multidimensional Schmidt – Sermat Differential Loneliness Scale correlate with the following self-actualization factors: time ratio, self-regard, spontaneity, nature of mankind, sociability, human values, self-acceptance and human nature. All the scales of the Korchagina’s loneliness scale correlates with: time ratio, human nature, cognitive ratio, self-acceptance, self – regard. General indicators of loneliness (UCLA, Schmidt – Sermat Differential Loneliness Scale scale, Korchagina’s loneliness scale) are in a straight relation with the general self-actualization indicators. However, a weak self-actualization has a direct influence on the probability of the loneliness symptoms. The present research shows that loneliness in its different contexts of manifestation is in strong relationship with self-actualization factors. The present paper suggests developing and implementing a psychosocial intervention program with the aim of self-actualization growing in order to diminish loneliness in young adults.

Keywords: loneliness, self-actualization, young adults, multidimensional approach, integrative approach.

56. Formative Valences of Presentation Graphics Software between Myth and Reality | View PDF 
Author(s): Ana-Maria Aurelia PETRESCU *, Gabriel GORGHIU , Ioana STĂNCESCU , Laura Monica GORGHIU
Pages: 611-622
In the context of the on-going reform of the Romanian education, the use of modern educational means (audio-video – mostly in digital format, virtual experiments and simulations, educational software) represents an obvious sign of connecting the school to the imperatives of the contemporary society. The teacher of the 21st century cannot call the attention of the students just using traditional means of learning and teaching strategies, mainly when applying rigid methods, even coercive ones. The modern teachers should possess a range of professional skills which must enable to achieve an educational quality process: communication skills, ways to identify the students’ needs, the aspirations and the potentialities of each student, socio-emotional skills, integrated approach to the curriculum, planning, organizing and analyzing abilities, monitoring and evaluation abilities, and not in the end, digital skills. Coming near the digital skills, it has to be noticed that in recent years, the use of presentation graphics software (using Power Point or Prezi by example) in academic lectures and seminars, becomes more common, understood as in accordance to the student’s centered educational paradigm and the actual trends of higher education modernization. The paper aims to illustrate an analysis concerning the advantages and limits of using presentation graphics software, as qualitative criteria in the teaching-learning process. In this sense, a questionnaire was developed and applied to a representative sample of students, in order to identify their perceptions about the effects of academic lectures and seminars where teachers use presentations – designed with the help of presentation graphics software – as teaching and learning resources.

Keywords: learning objects, student’s centred learning, professional competences, presentation graphics software.

57. Olympic Games in Time of Cold War | View PDF
Author(s): Cristiana Lucretia POP *
Pages: 623-632
The Cold War ran from roughly 1947 until the USSR collapse in 1991. Those years were marked by the arms race and the fear of a possible nuclear war between the USA and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Sports were used as a vehicle for superiority of one political regime over the other. Champion athletes image and results were used as propaganda means because the international visibility, the public interest in major sports competitions and the national pride they aroused. U.S.A., after losing the top nation position in favor of Soviet Union in 1956 and 1960, considered winning in Olympic Games a matter of national prestige. The athlete for whom the flag is hoisted and the national anthem is sung, is the bearer of this prestige and his or her performance is inevitably associated with the country and system effectiveness. In the Olympics arena, the Cold War culminates in the boycott of the 1980 and 1984 Games. The main research question of this paper is if in present time we can address the sporting Cold War as an historic, past issue or a new stage of rivalry still persists influencing the Olympic movement? The changes that were made in the international political landscape since 1989 were reflected in the Olympic Games in Barcelona 1992 participation, when for the first time since 1972, no country boycotted the Olympic competition. Throughout the Cold War, U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. have used the Olympic Games and their athletes as opportunities for promoting their political agenda. The end of the Cold War could not prevent the politics to interfere in sport, especially in Olympic movement.

Keywords: Olympic movement, political tensions, boycotts, propaganda, nations top ranking.

58. Analysis of the Influence of Sensorimotor Coordination Development on Floor Acrobatic Training in Women’s Artistic GymnasticsView PDF

Author(s): Vladimir POTOP*, Ion CARP
Pages: 633-643
This paper aims to highlight the influence of sensorimotor coordination development on biomechanical characteristics in double back somersault executed on the floor by junior gymnasts aged 12 to 15 years. The following methods were used to achieve the goal and objectives of the research: analysis of specialized literature; method of pedagogical observation; method of pedagogical experiment; method of tests; video computerized method of biomechanical analysis; statistical-mathematical method and method of graphical representation. A number of 3 tests of evaluation of sensorimotor coordination were used during this study: test 1 –”Briuk” test, static balance; test 2 – static-kinematic stability and test 3 – stuck landing. The biomechanical analysis was made by means of Physics ToolKit program, monitoring the key elements of sports technique used in double back somersault on floor. The study findings show the level of sensorimotor coordination development in terms of spatial-temporal orientation, vestibular coordination and balance, kinematic and dynamic analysis of sports technique key elements regarding body segments trajectories, angular speeds and force momentum during double back somersault on floor. Also, the evaluation of sensorimotor coordination consistent with the biomechanical analysis of sports technique of floor acrobatic elements in the case of junior gymnasts aged 12 to 15 highlights their influence on the technical training and performances achieved in competitions.

Keywords:Gymnastics, biomechanics, sensorimotor coordination, performance.

59. Educational Responsibility in Efficient Implementation of European Policy Concerning the Energy MarketView PDF
Author(s): Victorita RADULESCU*
Pages: 644-654
Economic and energetic trans-border exchanges, specialists educated in universities from the entire world represent now a reality. Only international exchanges can ensure economic growth in medium or long term. This article, divided into six parts aims for highlighting the importance of international energy exchanges. The European legislation developed by the Report of High-Level Reflection Group of Energy Community, in accordance with the European Market was implemented in Romania. The national authority creates permanent feedbacks transformed into concepts transmitted to students, future European Union specialists. The Pan-European energy market represents a target for all countries, members or not of the European Union. Some proposals and implementation rules, connected to the Romanian free Energy Market represent another target for teaching the students. Two dimensions of flexibility must interfere. The European acquis needed to be adapted to the socio-economic situation of the Contracting Parties. Creativity and homogeneity will be well balanced at each individual state case. The Energetic Community believes institutional changes are necessary. Some investments in the “citizen benefits” complete the actual image of the Romanian Energy Market, as part of the European Energetic Community. The framework implementation and some government agreements may provide further assurance to the energetic guarantors. They will act as a complement to another initiative such as the Action Plan for Growth in Central and SE part of Europe. One of its roles will be to provide a “one-stop-shop” for the mobilization of finance directed to the priority projects. Finally, some conclusions and main references are presented.

Keywords: High-Level Reflexion Group; Permanent High-Level Group; Monthly Market Report; Energy Community; Risk Enhancement; SE European Energy Market.

 60. Policy and Improper Management of the Dams realized by Local Materials with Possible Risk in Exploitation View PDF
Author(s): Victorita RADULESCU*
Pages: 655-664
The present paper presents a study case of improper rehabilitation and inefficient management of the water volume from two hydropower lakes, with dams realized by local materials. Romania has hydraulic potential, water being one of the most available resources. Realization of dams by local materials represents one of the most economic and efficient solutions, well used at large scale in Romania during ‘80. In this article is presented a study-case with two dams improperly executed and maintained. Nowadays, local authorities are confronted with infiltration and erosion appeared into both lateral sides of the dikes. The article structured into seven parts intends to cover some theoretical and practical aspects referring to the exploitation and modeling of the appeared problems. The dam execution was not correlated with the local geographic conditions, climatic parameters, soils and water characteristics, but mainly with the basic geologic considerations. The numerical model was calibrated based on these observations. Some mathematical aspects, based on three theoretical models of infiltration through materials with different shapes, characteristics, and dimensions are scheduled. The flow through cross-sections is a permanent flow, due to constant infiltration. Some obtained results for infiltration velocities and streamlines are illustrated. Several proposed and tested solutions to reduce the erosion and infiltration and to optimize the management of the lake are mentioned in sixth part. The conducted study is a request of local authorities, in order to improve the performance of these hydropower lakes. Finally, the paper ends with some discussions, conclusions, and references.

Keywords: Water management, Soils particle size, Hydrographical network, Groundwater flows, Numerical modelling.

61. The Impact of Social Media Engagement Metrics on Purchase Intention: A Study on Brand Fan Page Followers | View PDF
Pages: 665-681
Research on the impact of social media users’ engagement action on purchase intention still remains in its infancy. It is necessary for a company to gauge whether or not its efforts to stimulate user activity on its fan pages are successful in generating output. This study utilized the Uses and Gratification (UGT) theory and Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) as a foundation to explore the social media engagement actions and examined the effect of users’ engagement actions alongside their purchase intention. An online survey was carried out on four popular companies’ fan page followers in various industries in Malaysia, and a total of 307 questionnaires were collected and analysed. The findings indicated a significant relationship between fan page engagement and Purchase intension. The results will help e-commerce marketers identify the importance of social media engagement on sales, while guiding e-marketers on their decision pertaining to e-marketing tools, particularly for engagement metrics in increasing sales. The study will also provide marketers with a descriptive idea on users’ activities. Overall, the study serves as a basic fundamental guideline for academicians and researchers to interpret the concept of engagement metrics and its effect on purchase intention, as well opening a vast area of unexplored researches on the subject of social media.

Keywords: Social Media Marketing, Social Media Engagement, Engagement Metrics. Facebook Fan Page, Purchase Intention.

62. The Convertor Status of Article of Case and Number in the Romanian LanguageView PDF
Author(s): Diana-Maria ROMAN*
Pages: 682-694
This study is the outcome of research on the grammar of the contemporary Romanian language. It proposes a discussion of the marked nominalization of adjectives in Romanian, the analysis being focused on the hypostases of the convertor (nominalizer). Within this area of research, contemporary scholarly treaties have so far accepted solely nominalizers of the determinative article type (definite and indefinite) and nominalizers of the vocative desinence type, in the singular. However, with regard to the marked conversion of an adjective to the large class of nouns, the phenomenon of enclitic articulation does not always also entail the individualization of the nominalized adjective, as an expression of the category of definite determination. What is outlined, thus, is the situation of nominalized adjectives, in the vocative case, always accompanied, to the right, by pronominal possessive adjectives or by a genitive, in the absence of the head noun. As the expression of conversion, the enclitic article at the end of these nominalized adjectives can no longer coincide with the definite determinative article: despite the homonymy, it is an article of case and number nonetheless. Under these circumstances, the Romanian system actualizes the convertor in the nominalization of adjectives depending on the case of the nominalized lexeme: convertors of the desinence type and of the article of case and number type are actualized in the vocative (V), whereas convertors of the determinative article type (definite and indefinite) are actualized in the nominative, accusative, genitive and dative (NAccGD).

Keywords: conversion, convertor (nominalizer), determinative article, article of case and number, article of gender, number and case, nominalization.

63. The Flective-Relateme of the Determinative Article Type in the Romanian Language | View PDF
Author(s): Diana-Maria ROMAN*
Pages: 695-708
This study represents a research on the grammar of the contemporary Romanian language. It proposes a discussion regarding the identification of the flective-relateme as an expression of the grammatical category of the case (seen as a relational category) of Romanian common nouns with definite and indefinite articles when they occupy a structural position of the part of sentence and syntactic function type, in the absence of prepositions or prepositional phrases. In the Romanian language, the noun, as a Ts, can be subordinated to a Tr only through two subtypes of relateme, which are in a relation of logical disjunction: preposition-relateme vs flective-relateme. A common noun, whether nondetermined or determined (definite or indefinite), may materialize either a monomorphematic flective, in which case the flective-relateme can be of the desinence type or of the definite determinative article type, or a bimorphematic flective. In the latter situation, accepting the phenomenon of syncretism and redundancy in the Romanian language, it becomes clear that common grammatical categories, number and case, are materialized alike in both flectional subunits, making it difficult to delimit the expression unit of the flective-relateme: the desinence or the determinative article. Once we accept the principle of the monosubordination of syntactic functions and the much higher case functionality of the flective of the determinative article type compared to desinence, we may conclude that the determinative article becomes a flective-relateme.

Keywords: grammateme, syncretism, redundancy, relational category, flective, structural position, flective-relateme.

 64. An Alternative to Post-Humanism: Neo-Humanism. The Argument of Consciousness SingularityView PDF 
Author(s): Viorel ROTILĂ*
Pages: 709-718
Due to development of science we are in the situation of an intervention in the complex area of nature without being able to yet identify the inflection point from which the artificial created by the natural man becomes in turn natural. Perhaps this is just another strong sense of singularity, Consciousness Singularity (CS) is the key moment of this transition. By CS we understand the ability of a consciousness to understand what consciousness is. It is to know in a scientific sense, that brings along prediction with it, the possibility to create a consciousness, finalizing the status of human creator. Instead of the leap assumed by TS the key challenge is the “revolution of consciousness”, generated by the new understanding of humanity brought along by CS. Most of the arguments in favour of Technological Singularity (TS) involves the possibility of a qualitative leap based on the quantitative accumulation, missing the problem represented by the knowledge of consciousness. We cannot predict the time / period when the CS occurs or provide strong arguments for the burst of the CS. We think, however, that TS assumes CS. Namely, that the debate about TS is really about CS. The prediction of CS consequences is impossible. The study of consciousness inevitably changes the human’s image and that of the society, finally resulting in the redefining of humanity. Contrary to many expectations emerged on the marketplace of ideas, it is not the switch to trans-humanism the one that will characterize such a change, but the redefining of the humane. Not the post-humanism, but the new humanism is the social-moral objective of the socio-moral consciousness research results. The main feature of the humane is the all-humane: the tendency of people to remain within the humanity regardless of the severity of the practiced behaviours.

Keywords: Consciousness Singularity, consciousness revolution, trans-humanism, posthumanism, neo-humanism.

 65. Social Effects of Consciousness Theory: Redefining Responsibility according to the existence of the Free WillView PDF
Author(s): Viorel ROTILĂ
Pages: 719-729
The hypothesis of the dependence of our actions on the biological structure of the brain, where a large part of the illegal or immoral actions become explicable through biological or physiological abnormalities, risks throwing into the air both the doctrine of free will and the justification of punishment. At present, the whole system of rules seems to be built on a misunderstanding of the self, and it also affects the presumption of others’ freedom of will. There is evidence that casts doubt on the causal power of consciousness over our actions. The existence of free will seems conditioned by cognitive competence, which most often acquires the image of moral competence. The unequal distribution of cognitive skills affects the free will, so the problem of responsibility. The question of the extent of the avoidable injustice maintained by the legal system becomes legitimate in the context of the lack of adaptation of the legal norms to the new data of science. The neuroscience implications on human responsibility are discussed, opening up one of the contemporary issues: legitimacy of punishment. It is one of the points where science risks demolishing the old social rules, bringing into question the need for strong re-adaptations of the various social sciences in tune with the new discoveries, the moral and the law being at the forefront of change. If the definition of fault is dependent on the possibilities of science then the absence of social diligence in favour of science is a fault of the society. The major problem of scientific interventions in the area of social complexity is the inability to predict their effects, implying the assuming of the risks inherent to the exit from the safety generated by the traditional social solutions, prudence being indicated. The post-humane, trans-humane, super-human, etc. all bring fears upon a humanity that has turned human rationality into the supreme point of orientation of morality and equality into one of the principles of ordering activity. The discussion is about the revolution of the social design of the research on consciousness, the re-establishment of the humane and of the social, namely a new humanism.

Keywords: Theory of consciousness; new humanism; free will; responsibility; transhumanism.

 66. Analysis of a Major Inequity in the Budgetary Wage System: Gerontocracy. Arguments and Solutions | View PDF
Author(s):Viorel ROTILĂ , Lidia CELMARE
Pages: 730-739
In this article, we demonstrate that the influence of seniority on employees’ gross salaries in the budgetary sector is exaggerated, leading to significant effects which allow us to legitimately discuss the gerontocracy it reveals, in other words, the wage discrimination based on age criteria. The wage system currently applied for the budgetary employees’ wages is characterized by a hierarchical classification based on a dominant criterion, namely the age, which is equivalent to the “seniority in work” indicator (transposed into the six salary grades). Seniority is an exclusive criterion for defining payment hierarchy in the case of identical categories of staff. For each occupational category, the basic salary is hierarchically classified based on seniority and according to the 6 grades; also, based on it all categories of bonuses are established. Thus, the differences in the basic salary are multiplied by each of the applicable bonuses. The maximum level of polarization based on seniority is the when bonuses for working conditions depend on the basic salary which is hierarchically classified according to the accumulated length of service. The result is that different “compensations” for identical working conditions in identical occupational categories are offered. Different compensation for members of the same professional category working under exactly the same conditions flagrantly violates the principles of equity and the provisions of Art. 3, section c) of Law no. 284/2010. We consider that the best solution would be that bonuses should be related to the basic salary, which would correspond to the 0 grade for each of the professional categories. Considering the set of effects caused by wage discrimination based on age and taking into account the reason why they were introduced, we used the term “gerontocracy”. Gerontocracy could be one of the risks inherent to democratic societies and created by modernity, which has not been sufficiently studied so far and which is enhanced by the contribution of age-based knowledge (recognition) in a society where science occupies an increasingly important place.
Keywords: Gerontocracy, discrimination, wage system, budgetary employees’, payment hierarchy.

 67. An Analysis of Public Pay Policy from the Perspective of Ethical and Legal Principles. Case Study: Draft Law on Public Employees’ Pay | View PDF
Author(s): Viorel ROTILĂ *, Traian PALADE
Pages: 740-746
In this article, we analyze the public pay policy of Romanian public employees from the perspective of certain mandatory principles in this respect. Thus, we consider that a few relevant methodological aspects should be considered in the elaboration of the bill on the salaries of the public employees, in order to minimize the potential negative social impact; these aspects are: a) Through pilot studies, the bill should avoid the effects such as the law of unintended consequences. The unitary wage law of budgetary staff has a public policy nature. Any public policy assumes the risk of confronting the law of unintended consequences, in particular the Cobra effect (governors’ good intention has a contrary effect); b) Evidence-based action. Interventions must be based on prior studies and the political decision must be preceded by technical analysis. The absence of technical analyses is one of the major drawbacks of this political initiative, and evidence of inadequacy is already visible; c) The rules for the construction of the entire project must be defined beforehand. In other words, the construction must be based on clear principles and rules, capable of generating reasonable predictions on its consequences. We reviewed the bill from these perspectives. The study includes short impact assessments both on the medical staff – doctors, nurses and nursing staff – and on the non-medical staff. In this way, we have demonstrated some of the problems faced by this initiative regarding public employee pay policy.

Keywords: Law on unintended consequences, public policy, payroll, impact analysis, discrimination.

68. Volunteering: Interest or Altruism? View PDF
Author(s): Delia Elena RUSU
Pages: 747-754

This paper focuses on how volunteering is seen by youth with ages between 18 and 26 years, from Iasi, Romania. Is volunteering 100% how its simple definition sustains (such as a non-mandatory type of work that comes into supporting a part of society’s needs through helping organizations in their activities) or is it a mask of a most specific interest (such as gaining experience for ones field of study, making friends or developing abilities)? Either way, we may conclude that perhaps no matter the reasons why volunteering is practiced – it brings value to a society’s endeavour to motivate its youth to persevere in its activities and for them to involve as much as possible in order for its demarche to be uphold to progress. A micro-research-study (with data collected and analyzed from 5 focus-groups) has been conducted for disclosure the main reasons of volunteering for youth from the present time. This micro-study is incorporated in a larger and more complex research that is still ongoing.

Keywords: Volunteering, interest, altruism, organization and society development.

69. The Educational Failure in an International School | View PDF

Author(s):Claudia SALCEANU*, Raluca-Silvia MATEI
Pages: 755-760
The school failure, as a complex system of manifestations, such as absenteeism, the poor school performance, the lack of interest in different school subjects, difficulties in adapting to the requirements of the educational system is the central core of this research. The study was conducted on a sample of 92 students from two schools in Constanta: an international school and a secondary school of mainstream education. There was developed a questionnaire for the students, containing questions aiming to provide answers to the main objectives of the study. A comparison was made between the two educational systems. The authors aim to capture the following aspects: (1) The identification of the family’s role in the educational process; (2) The identification of the disciplines with worst results at school and the explanation of school failure in these domains; (3) The identification of the obstacles to school progress, perceived by the students; (4) Describing the relationship between teacher and student; (5) The identification of the perception concerning the volume and complexity of homework; (6) Describing students’ attitude towards the process of evaluation and identifying the level of students’ satisfaction / dissatisfaction concerning the evaluation method; (7) Highlighting both positive and negative means of motivating which are preferred by students within the instructive-educational process. In the end of the study, there is a debate on the conclusions and practical implications of the study.

Keywords:Educational failure, educational process, international school, school progress, school malajustment.

70. Farm-based Education: A Comparative Study of Romania and Ukraine | View PDF
Author(s): Elena-Mirela SAMFIRA, Hasan ARSLAN, Viktor VUS*
Pages: 761-771
Farm-based education represents a relatively new concept for educational research domain. There are many countries where farm-based education activities are well organised, and the results are appreciated by both children and adults. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a survey applied to 303 university students from two universities of Romania and Ukraine, related to farm-based education. The students’ majors were Agriculture, Environmental Protection, and Agricultural Management, because they are closely related to farm-based education. As variables were used age, environment, year of study and major. The analysis was realised with a SPSS software, and results show there are no statistically significant differences in age, year of study and environment, between students from Romania and from Ukraine. This aspect of the research may reflect that, though there are two countries with different cultural models, students think in a similar way, maybe as a consequence of globalization. Using ANOVA multiple comparisons, result present that the mean in the students majoring in Environmental protection is significantly different from that of the students majoring in Agricultural Management. The results may reflect the open-mindedness of future specialists in these domains towards farm-based education activities, which encourage learning in children with different behaviours and mentalities.

Keywords: Farm education, agronomy students, majors, cultural differences.

71. Gender Differences in Teenagers’ Perceptions and Attitudes toward Sciences | View PDF
Author(s): Elena Ancuţa SANTI, Gabriel GORGHIU*
Pages: 772-785
The adolescence represents a significant period in the life of an individual, characterized by rapid transformations and evolutions, where new experiences are faced and lived – practically, the most complex stage on the road to maturity. In general, the dynamics of this age is marked by deep crisis, by internal and external conflicts, emerged in the attempts to discover the self-identity. Studies on gender differences in adolescence are focused on issues concerning the formation of self-identity, self-esteem, appearance of crisis that marks this stage and ways to overcome them on educational performance and school success, but also on the existed options of choosing a career or crystalizing the future profession. Differences in the perception and attitude of male and female adolescents are important in terms of discovering the mechanisms that favor to achieve outstanding results, which may generate interest for major topics and motivational support for specific activities. But when Science area (even in the traditional format of Physics-Chemistry-Biology) is presented to adolescences, it seems that it cannot be said that Science peak their interest, being qualified as having rather a negative image for most of them. In this sense, the aim of the paper is to highlight the teen-agers’ perception and their attitude towards scientific activities, taking into account the gender variable, considering the designing of appropriate learning opportunities in relation to students’ interests and particularities. The analysis was performed following the feed-back expressed by 185 high-school students (11th and 12th grades), before the classroom interventions of inquire-based science teaching modules designed in the frame of the European FP7 Project entitled: “PROFILES – Professional Reflection Oriented Focus on Inquiry-based Learning and Education through Science”.

Keywords: adolescents, perception, attitude, Science, students’ feedback, PROFILES Project. 

72. The Relationship of Body Composition and Aerobic Exercise CapacityView PDF
Author(s): Cristian Florian SAVU*, Constantin PEHOIU, Silviu Andrei BADEA
Pages: 786-794
Determining multifactorial phenomenon, the physical heritage also depends on hereditary and environmental conditions, in particular economic and social. To this body it is very responsive and therefore physical development can be regarded as an accurate indicator of health. Today, the food supply occurs frequently too extensive consequences such overload the body with fat and overweight installation. Also in the modern world it is confused with the new aesthetic conceptions, new trends in fashion, with frequent exposure to stress and bad habits (smoking, alcohol, drugs). In this context it may occur body homeostasis disorders or abnormal weight decrease or counterclockwise, bulimia and body fat overload. Regulation of body weight requires permanent control of the main constituents of body lean mass and fat mass, which is dependent evolution of nutrition and physical activity. Keeping an optimum composition is one means of improving and maintaining health. The aerobic capacity is an important component of physical fitness because it reflects the overall capacity of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems to cope with a prolonged and vigorous exercise. In terms of health, the high level of cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with decreased risk for certain diseases such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, obesity, diabetes, certain malignancies etc. Fight against nutritional disorders can’t be achieved only under physiological adaptation mechanisms of the body. Adaptation theory is based on physiological reasoning. Thus, we believe that differences between individuals arise from mutations or adaptations to particular climatic or geographic conditions that influenced survival at a time.
Keywords: weight, adjustment, nutrition, physical effort, aerobic, consumption.

73. The Evolution of Regional Disparities in the Central and Eastern European Countries of European Union | View PDF 
Author(s): Adrian Liviu SCUTARIU*
Pages: 795-807
The theoretical and practical concerns regarding the analysis of economic activity in regional profile are not new, the regional economy, part of regional science, lasting since the beginning of the 19th century. The regional development is a current subject, as the problem of development gaps is still the in EU attention, the communitarian strategies aiming at reducing them. Given that the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, that joined the EU since 2004, included regions that had a low level of development, the disparities become more pronounced in the EU. Therefore, the regional policy took on greater importance and have been allocated to increasing funding. Regional disparities exist not only between eastern and western EU, but also between regions of the same country. In this article we want to analyse how these disparities have evolved in Central and Eastern Europe countries of the EU. We relate at the same time at the EU average. We will use the values of GDP/capita expressed in Purchasing Power Standard, indicator also used by the EU in allocating funds for regional policy. Generally, the region that includes the capital city registers values significantly higher than the other regions, reaching above the EU-28 average and the differences among the region containing the capital city and the others remain. In most cases, the values of GDP/capita at regional level tend to approach the EU-28 average, but the development gaps remain high and the years 2013 and 2014 have witnessed insignificant increases.

Keywords: Regional disparities; European Union; regional policy; GDP per capita expressed in Purchasing Power Standard; Central and Eastern Europe countries.

74. Deconstructing Roth’s The Plot against America: The Making of the President Donald Trump |  View PDF
Author(s): Majid SHIRVANI*
Pages: 808-819
This article deals with deconstructing both Philip Roth and Donald Trump’s rhetoric in an attempt to self-performance by reproducing the fundamental history and knowledge within the multicultural Plot Against America. It also seeks to examine Roth’s too-true vision on Trump’s rise as a product of the American heritage of racism, sexism, and to uncover the alternate history as a way to self-manifestation, while concurrently subverting its validity by showing how such an approach is inadequate in reaching the self-making. By historicizing the anti-Semitic discourse, Roth doubts and influences the “traps of history”, mainly when dealing with the Jewish minority, as well as Trump does by his anti-immigrant and racist positions (xenophobia), in order to generate a transgressive space for his fictional Lindbergh. Moreover, “economic anxiety” has become a notorious term for articulating Trump’s discourse; even when his campaigns clear call to racism are acknowledged; it was accepted that this racism is caused by economics rather than by a revival of white nationalism. In spite of the explicit racism and nationalism that has always been the milestone of Trump’s campaign, within Roth’s novel, it isn’t just the media that distorts the essence of Lindbergh’s appeal to the public; most of the Jews disavows that virulent anti-Semitism has taken hold of the United States.
Keywords: Alternate history, ethnicity, subjectivity, eliminationist rhetoric, nationalism.

75. “Yes They Can?” – An Empirical Study on the Effect of Slogans in Brand Awareness | View PDF
Author(s): Paulo SILVEIRA*, Susana GALVÃO, Graça PENTEADO
Pages: 820-831
Slogans are a verbal or written expression of the brand marketing positioning and, consequently, should aim to benefit the brand. The brand equity concept includes several dimensions, and those might be developed or reinforced by each branding marketing action. Brand awareness is a component of brand equity and, therefore, might be influenced by marketing communications, which includes the slogan. The main research question addressed in this paper is to analyse if slogans might influence brand awareness. To achieve that goal, an empirical quantitative study was conducted among a sample of three hundred and seventy mobile telecom service consumers, gathering primary data via an on-line questionnaire. The variables considered were slogan recall, slogan recognition and spontaneous brand awareness for three different mobile telecom brands. The results obtained reveal a positive association between slogan recall and brand awareness in two of the brands in study. The results also show that those two brands were the ones with the highest awareness levels.

Keywords: Slogans; branding; brand equity; brand awareness.

76. The Institutions of Public Administration of Child’s Protection of the Republic of MoldovaView PDF
Author(s): Andrei SMOCHINĂ, Tatiana FOCŞA*
Pages: 832-844
The state has a fundamental responsibility towards the destiny of every citizen, especially towards the children that represent the future of the country. The state contribution to the activity of child protection is manifested by guaranteeing the functioning of institutions, services and public or private structures which are responsible for child care and protection. Social protection of people in general and of children in particular represents the key-element of the social reforms and the main direction of the state social policy. As social activity, the public administration fulfills the general interest expressed within the law, accordingly being the activity that organizes and enforces the law till the concrete material fact. The public authorities intervene every time when the child’s development, safety or physical and moral integrity are endangered. The research issue consists in determining the institutions of public administration of child’s protection and analyzing the competences of these institutions regulated in the European acts, in the normative acts of the Republic of Moldova and in many other acts that are subordinated to the law. The analysis of the national judicial practice shows that in all cases which are related directly or indirectly to the best interest of the child, the presence of the guardianship authority is mandatory. The best interest of the child is the principle that represents the supreme concern in the judicial and extrajudicial procedures with children involvement. Thus, all regulations approved in the field of respecting and promoting the child’s rights, as well as any legal act issued or, according to case, concluded within the mentioned field are subordinated with priority to the principle of the best interest of the child. Thus, by the given investigation, the authors tend to reveal which of public authorities is involved in the protection of child’s rights, as well as to analyze the practices of the European states regarding the subject under discussion.
Keywords: institution; state administration; protection; safety; child; best interest.

77. Students’ Perceptions Concerning their Involvement in Sciences Lessons Learning Activities | View PDF
Author(s): Ioana STĂNCESCU*, Ana Maria Aurelia PETRESCU, Luminiţa Mihaela DRĂGHICESCU
Pages: 845-854
In the contemporary educational settings, it becomes a priority to have a qualitative education, taking into consideration the students’ real needs and placing them in the center of the educational process. In this context, it is obvious that the learning process, specific to the students, has to support significant changes, following a well-defined trajectory from passive, mechanical learning, extrinsically motivated to an active and proactive, profound and intrinsically motivated learning. Learning in a school context is a complex and not at all easy process, which aims to achieve positive accumulations and transformations in the way of thinking, feeling and acting of the students. To achieve effective learning is extremely important for the teacher to create opportunities for each student in the process of experiencing successful learning, being interesting how students relates to learning outcomes and what are their opinions about the learning activity. In this sense, the paper aims to investigate the upper secondary school students’ perceptions considering their learning process in relation to Sciences lessons. For this purpose, in the context of the FP7 PROFILES project, we pursued an analysis based on the feed-back offered by 529 students to a questionnaire, built with predefined responses placed on a Likert scale with seven steps. The questions were oriented on important issues related to the learning activity, like the manifestation of their skills within the Sciences lessons subjects, perception concerning the difficulty/ease of learning new things, thoughts about the difficulty of school tasks and perception regarding their academic performance, associated with success or failure in the proposed learning activity.
Keywords: learning process, Sciences lessons, effective learning, students’ perceptions, PROFILES Project.

78. The Self-Efficacy of the Emerging Adult, Student or Graduate | View PDF
Author(s): Mihaela STOMFF, Dan VASILIU*
Pages: 855-863
This research aimed to highlight a model of self-efficacy in emerging adults (ages 18/20 – 30 years). We selected a sample of 191 participants, students and graduates. Our goal was to identify the optimum period of intervention to prevent the abandon and capitalization of the latent abilities of these young people. According to a report of the NASOR [14], the rate of academic studies abandon is of 40 per cent. At the same time, there is a significant number of students or graduates who do not succeed to secure a position suitable to their academic training and thus the opportunity of enhancing the development area closest to them. Between the ages of 18 and 26 we noticed a decrease of the records of the perceived self-efficacy, with a minimum between 25 and 26 years. The reasons could be some artefacts coming from their adolescence period, the changing of the paradigm linked to the educational system (different in the academic environment), the tendency towards independence and the confrontation with difficulties in ensuring adequate material conditions, the low perception of the practical utility of the accumulated knowledge. We identified a peak of the high scores of self-efficacy, statistically significant, around the age of 27. The explanation may be due to positive changes such as: the first professional achievements, followed by the emergence of new career opportunities, the future oriented perspective regarding the foundation of a family. We did not ascertain gender regarding differences.
Keywords: self-efficacy; age; gender; emerging adult; abandon. 

79. Incidence of Poverty among Large Households and the Alleviating Effects of the Guaranteed Minimum Income in Romania| View PDF 
Author(s): Cristina STROE*, Silvia-Florina COJANU
Pages: 864-875
Studies show that large households are a vulnerable category, faced with high rates of relative and severe poverty. The most vulnerable to the risk of poverty and its extreme forms are the households with many children, those that, besides children, have inactive or unemployed members, persons that are employed but gain low incomes, or single parent families with children, and so on. To reduce poverty and its extreme forms, the guaranteed minimum income was established in 2002 as a measure to prevent and alleviate poverty and social exclusion among families and single persons in difficulty. In this paper we analyze the poverty reducing effects of this social benefit for large households. As a contribution to the knowledge development of the area related to poverty and social action, we estimated the guaranteed minimum income impact on relative poverty, calculated at the 60% of median income per equivalent adult, in dynamics, for large households. Methodologically, for highlighting the guaranteed minimum income benefit’s effects, the rates of relative and severe poverty were simulated, including or not including this type of social support in the disposable income of people in the households and, by subtraction, we assessed the guaranteed minimum income contribution to poverty reduction for the large households. Results show that although the guaranteed minimum income has a positive effect, reducing the relative and severe poverty among large households, these households are still facing high poverty, even in the presence of this social support.

Keywords:Poverty, guaranteed minimum income, large households, impact, simulation.

80. The Development of the Innovative Potential in the Academic Environment of the Republic of Moldova – a Wish or a Necessity?View PDF
Author(s): Alina SUSLENCO*
Pages: 876-888
In this paper, we made a theoretical and applied insight regarding the concept of innovative potential, creativity, and, we also tried to explain the need to develop the creativity in universities of the Republic of Moldova. Therefore, in order to be competitive, universities need to develop and create ideas, innovative products by capitalizing teachers’ and students’ potential towards the emergence of new inventions, innovative products. The university environment is characterized by creation of a favourable atmosphere for innovation. Nowadays, the universities are in fierce competition, and must demonstrate competence, exceptional abilities and an impressive capacity to capitalize the innovative potential. Only by assuming these values, universities will become real vectors of knowledge and will walk, with firm steps, on the path of sustainable competitiveness.
The present paper is focused on the use the following methods: analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, scientific abstraction. In conclusion, we can mention that the university environment must capitalize the academics’ innovative potential. It must also capitalize the students’ potential in order to be competitive and achieve a high students’ employability in the labour market by forming special skills and abilities.

Keywords: creativity, creative potential, innovative potential, university, students.

81. Consideration regarding the celebration of Dragobete and Saint Valentine in the Oltenia region | View PDF
Author(s): Bianca-Mădălina TEODORESCU*, Oprea-Valentin BUŞU, Răzvan-Alexandru CĂLIN
Pages: 889-897
This article is a comparative and holistic analysis of two celebrations, Saint Valentine and Dragobete, which have the same subject, namely celebrating love. The main purpose of this article is to explain how these two celebrations are celebrated in Romania nowadays, especially in the Oltenia region. We resorted to different types of researching methods such as: participative observation, questionnaires, interviews and meta-analytical method to prove which of these two celebrations are considered more important in our society. In the last years, Saint Valentine has become an important celebration for Romania’s society and it has almost taken over the meaning of our traditional celebration of love. Based on our research, we wanted to better understand this phenomenon, how an imported celebration as Saint Valentine has created its own rituals in the Romania’s culture. Romanian celebration of love is still considering Dragobete, but it doesn’t have the same intensity as it used to have in the past any more. From our research, we discovered that both Saint Valentine and Dragobete receive almost the same attention from people, but the former one is celebrated more in the cities than in the countryside. People from the countryside are less exposed to the influence of Saint Valentine, so it is celebrated in a few villages in Oltenia. However, the Oltenia villages are closer from the anthropology’s perspective to Dragobete and they are more aware of the importance of the Romanian tradition. Also, we found out that neither Saint Valentin nor Dragobete are celebrated in a few villages from the Oltenia region.
Keywords: anthropology; celebrations; rituals; Saint Valentine; Dragobete.

82. Defensive Medicine: Myths and Realities | View PDF
Author(s): Grigore TINICA, Mihaela TOMAZIU-TODOSIA*, Gabriel-Catalin TOMAZIU-TODOSIA, Raluca Ozana CHISTOL, Diana BULGARU-ILIESCU, Cristina FURNICA
Pages: 898-910
The phenomenon of defensive medicine existed for decades in the United States but in Romania emerged lately following malpractice litigation and mass media aggression. Defensive medicine develops when doctors prescribe tests or procedures and avoid to treat high-risk patients or to perform certain high-risk procedures in order to reduce the risk of medical liability. This essay discusses the basis and principles of defensive medicine, analyses its causes and effects and debates the major problems affecting Romanian healthcare system, notably cross-border medical assistance. Finally, the authors examine alternatives to prevent defensive medicine practices with emphasis on cardiovascular surgery. Among physicians, some degree of defensive medicine will always exist, as long as malpractice risks shadow the doctors’ every footstep.

Keywords:defensive medicine, malpractice, cross-border medical assistance, healthcare system, medical liability.

83. Romanian Constitutional Court Decision of Relevance in the Field of Medical LawView PDF
Author(s): Elena TOADER, Cristina TEODORA POP*
Pages: 911-918
Constitutionality review is of high significance in the area of medical law in terms of the effects that the decisions of the Constitutional Court, which have a final and generally binding nature, generate in this branch of law. The resultant of the previously reference legal effects is the constitutionalisation phenomenon of medical law, which consists of a process of interaction between constitutional and medical law rules, whose finality is both the reconciling of legal provisions governing the medical field with the provisions of the Basic Law, and the elevation of some of these rules at constitutional level. Among the decisions of the Constitutional Courts that are relevant for medical law is Decision no. 717 of 29 October 2015, whereby the impossibility to exclude medical doctors from the sphere of civil servants governed by the Criminal Code and Decision no. 184 of 29 March 2016. Related to the above mentioned decisions, is important to be mentioned that the decisions of the Constitutional Court of Romania regarding the erga omenes mandatory decisions of the Highest Court of Cassation and Justice of Romania have mandatory effect. Thus these decisions should be respected and applied by all the ordinary courts and by the Highest Court of Cassation and Justice, as well.

Keywords:Medical doctors; civil servants; passive bribery; High Court of Cassation and Justice; Constitutional Court decisions; constitutionalisation of medical law.

84. A Simplified Approach to Soft System Design: Adapting Soft System MethodologyView PDF
Author(s): Lukas VALEK *
Pages: 919-930
Designing or analyzing of a system is a complex task. To study all elements of a system, its inputs and outputs is usually work of a systems engineer. However, systems thinking should be present in most of activities of human life as a part of a holistic approach. That includes not only so-called well-defined “hard systems”, but also “soft systems”, which are composed mostly of humans. There are many tools for systems design and analysis of hard systems, but very few for soft ones. One of approaches aimed for soft systems Soft System Methodology (SSM) by Peter Checkland, which is in use for more than 30 years. SSM tends to be a universal tool for system analysis and problem solving in environment of soft systems. On one side, it seems very straightforward in its use of seven basic steps and use of so-called rich pictures for drawing a systemic situation etc. However, its universality requires also awareness of many points of view on a system studied, which again makes it a tool for systems engineers rather than for common people. With proper adaptation it could be used also as an approach for problem-solving and systems analysis and design in non-profit, business or governmental sphere accessible to any manager, employee or a citizen, who would like to take a systemic point of view of a situation. In previous research, SSM was used to break down and re-design a system of complementary economy called Time Bank. During many iterations of the process, a simplified approach to SSM was discovered. The simplification is mainly in proposal of a template for rich pictures, which also includes connection to next steps making it simple to draw and simple to observe transformation process with its inputs and outputs. In result, a person who would like to have an overview on a system (any system that includes people including project management) can use it. The final result is very similar to what was proposed in original SSM, but simplified enough to be used by general public, which brings new added value especially to smaller organizations who cannot afford own systems engineering department, but would like choose a way of holistic approach towards their activities.

Keywords: Soft System Methodology, Time Bank, Systems Analysis, Systems Design.

85. Reintegration of Schizophrenia Diagnosed Patients in Social Environment through Art Therapy-A Pilot Study |   View PDF 
Author(s): Octavian VASILIU*
Pages: 931-942
Art-therapy is considered a somewhat controversial method of treatment in the field of psychotic disorders. While randomized trials with various comparators reported few if any benefits from this method in schizophrenia diagnosed patients, case reports are more enthusiastic in this regard. The main objective of this research was to construct a pilot study for a clinical trial focused on patients with schizophrenia, stabilized on pharmacological treatment, who intend to participate in a form of structured, 10-session, once a week, individual art-therapy. A group of 5 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to DSM IV TR criteria, stabilized on atypical antipsychotics, were included in an art-therapy program, with weekly individual sessions, focused on the relation between self and social environment. Themes like “meeting a school colleague”, “at the cinema”, “a dinner out”, “improve your neighborhood appeal” and “making new friends” were approached during the 10 weeks of the program. All art-therapy sessions included cognitive restructuring and role play, as augmentation strategies for the experiential processing of emotions. A 10-points visual analogic scale (VAS) recording overall patient satisfaction within social relationships was applied at each visit. Patients reported improvements on VAS with a mean of 35% after 10 weeks. The overall number of social contacts initiated by patients increased with 20% compared to baseline. Caregivers reported a better collaboration with the patients in the domain of daily chores and a decrease of expressed aggressiveness. In conclusion, art-therapy could be useful in improving psychotic stabilized patients’ frequency of interpersonal contacts, decreased aggressiveness and improved their involvement in daily activities.
Keywords: art-therapy, schizophrenia, atypical antipsychotics, social reintegration, social environment.

86. Improving Quality of Life in Caregivers of Alzheimer Dementia Patients- A Stepwise Approach | View PDF
Author(s): Octavian VASILIU*
Caregivers’ burden could have serious impact over social and professional functioning in adult and active population. Quality of life in caregivers of Alzheimer Disease (AD) patients should be monitored as an important indicator of their well-being and functional resources. The main objective of this research is to formulate a plan for the evaluation of the quality of life in caregivers of the AD patients as a first step in the recommendation of an adequate, stratified therapeutic intervention. Regarding the research methodology, the first step consisted in a review of the most validated instruments for caregiver status evaluation – SF-36, EuroQoL, Zarit Burden Interview (BI), Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF), and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). A composite score (cs) could be calculated based on these scales, and 3 classes of quality of life impairment severity could be defined. The second step consists in recommendations regarding the monitoring of the caregivers’ status using the same instruments, and the formulation of therapeutic interventions according to the severity of quality of life impairments. It is expected that applying this algorithm would decrease the AD burden’s functional impact over caregivers, while increasing their quality of life. Learning new ways to cope with stress, a better management of their own time and engaging in changing coping methods during group therapy sessions are expected to have a significant impact over caregivers overall psychological status. In conclusion, a better care should be provided for AD patients’ caregivers, in order to increase their functionality and quality of life.

Keywords: quality of life, caregivers’ burden, Alzheimer Dementia, resources management, therapeutic interventions.

87. Social Factors for Major Depressive Disorder Negative Prognosis in Young Patients | View PDF
Author(s): Octavian VASILIU*
Pages: 959-967
Young patients are vulnerable to major depressive disorder (MDD) due to various identifiable environmental stressors. Knowing the overall participation of these factors in the development and/or maintaining depressive symptoms is very important when establishing a patient’s prognosis. The main objectives of this research were to define the most important social factors for negative prognosis in young patients diagnosed with MDD and to formulate a plan for approaching these factors during psychotherapy sessions. Methodology was based on searching medical databases (Pubmed, Medscape, Cochrane, EMBASE, PsychINFO) for information regarding negative prognosis factors in young patients with MDD and evidence based recommendation for processing these factors using psychotherapy. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria for the review, we retained 9 researches that could be relevant to this paper’s objectives. The most relevant negative factors for prognosis in the targeted population are tensions in the familial relationships, including emotional or sexual abuse, parent divorce during early childhood, loss of a parent, loss of employment, loss of a close friend, alcohol use in his/her immediate environment, urban residence, cultural modelling of the feeling expression and willingness to seek treatment. Regarding the approach of these factors in psychotherapy data are more limited, and evidence based recommendations are still lacking. Therefore, we proposed an inclusive plan addressing most of the above mentioned factors. In conclusion, while several clinical and epidemiological data regarding negative prognosis factors in young patients MDD have been identified, more research in the field of how to deal in psychotherapy with these factors is needed.

Keywords: major depressive disorder, social risk factors, young population, psychotherapy, negative prognosis factors.

88. The Influence of Immanuel Kant’s Scientific Researches on the Causes of Natural Disasters in the Process of Secularization in the 18th Century | View PDF

Author(s):Elena VELESCU*
Pages: 968-976
The studies of Immanuel Kant constitute the foundations of the research for earthquakes from a geo-scientific point of view, through his reflections which favour the quantitative relationships of the search for causes. So, the current of secularization in the representation of the natural disaster is established in the eighteenth century by a speech influenced by the physical and natural sciences. Kant endeavours to propose explanations and to find the natural causes of the disaster, which, thanks to his argument, gain strongly in credibility compared with the moral, theological and philosophical formulations. The disaster becomes a peculiarity, which triggers fear, because it cannot be classified and explained. Kant reminds once again the humility, when he affirms that he is “niemals etwas mehr als ein Mensch”, the image of the great discrepancy between the technical audacity of man and his technical capacities.Through all his scientific texts that we have analysed, Kant announces the change of paradigm in the apprehension of the natural catastrophe. It will be analysed as a natural phenomenon, and not according to the perspective of a “coup de destin”. He exceeds the status of preacher to become a philosopher of Nature, because the reason of the evil does not lie in the order of Nature but in the excesses and the ignorance of the people. In his work, “Der einzig mögliche Beweisgrund zu einer Demonstration des Daseyns Gottes”, published seven years later, Kant makes a clear distinction between the natural causes and the moral causes, stemming from the faults of people, which do not cause misfortune as natural disasters.

Keywords: Immanuel Kant; secularization; natural disaster; nature; God.

89. Relevant Aspects regarding Personal Data Protection in the Romanian Constitutional Case-Law | View PDF
Author(s): Crina Mihaela VERGA*
Pages: 977-991
The topic addressed is of particular importance given that IT crime (cybercrime) is steadily increasing and it is difficult to control it due to the rapid expansion of the developments in the field. In this paper, we, firstly, define the notions of “cybercrime” and “personal data”. Then, we extensively present some relevant decisions, delivered by the Constitutional Court of Romania, on issues related to the IT field. The interesting aspects of the Constitutional Court’s vision on this area, which is the topic of this research, are highlighted in the presentation. The subject under analysis is very topical, because, by two decisions of the Constitutional Court, Law no.289/2008 and Law no.82/2012 were declared entirely unconstitutional and, until the time of the study, they have not been replaced with adequate legislation.

Keywords: personal data, Constitutional Court, Romania.

90. The Symbolic Significance of Architecture | View PDF
Author(s): Inna A. VERSHININA*, Artemiy R. KURBANOV
Pages: 992-1006
The article deals with the process of cities’ changes considered in the context of the formation and transformation of historical and cultural memory. Every moment of a city’s existence is a combination of “places of memory”. Each of them plays its role in the general symbolic ensemble. Urban development is connecting with transformation of social and political systems. Any social and political change is expressed by creation of new and destruction of old “places of memory” in the urban space. This connection becomes even more evident if we study the history and contemporary state of the capital cities. Traditionally, capitals bear a maximum symbolic load. The development of Moscow during the Soviet period shows how architectural solutions and urban space in general express the new socialist ideology. Soviet authorities strove to affirm their values and priorities with all the means they had, including the new image of communist Moscow. The collapse of Soviet regime became a new stage of development of the urban space. For certain architectural facilities, a fragile border between oblivion and destruction and preservation of an architectural monument with its official acknowledgment depends on multiple circumstances. These include purely pragmatic aspects related to the cost of preservation and reconstruction of the facility, ideological aspects as far as many facilities are a live reminder of the past that is sometimes rather embarrassing. The destiny of “houses-communes” in post-Soviet Moscow and Casa Parlamentului in Bucharest can serve as examples. The article concludes that the process of accelerated modernization changed the face of metropolitan cities in Eastern Europe.

Keywords: urban studies, space, “places of memory”, symbolic legacy of cities, capitals, Moscow, Bucharest, metropolitan cities, Eastern Europe.

 91.  Perceptions and Attitudes of Turkish Youth Studying at Hungarian Universities – A Quantitative and Qualitative ApproachView PDF
Author(s): Abdulkerim YAVUZASLAN*
Pages: 1007-1015

In recent years, one could observe a visible increase in the number of Turkish nationals studying in Hungary both on the basis of short-term (one semester) or long-term scholarship programs. Contrarily to the 1990’s and early 2000’s when Turks have opted for Hungary as they were unable to enter Turkish higher education institutions due to a discriminatory entrance policy in vigor in Turkey, nowadays, they tend to choose the Central European nation for various other reasons. The main goal of our present paper is to discover some of the motivations Turkish students might have and to describe an average Turkish student pursuing his or her studies in Hungary in terms of interest, education strategy and orientation for future career, and of course, the possibilities of research provided by Hungarian actors of the field. Our preconception is that the major issues to deal with while examining the Turkish youth learning in Hungary are that the country is located both physically and culturally closer to Turkey than many other European nations; most Turks strongly believe in the common origin of Turks and Hungarians and develop an interest in the shared past of the two ethnic groups; Hungary provides a high quality higher education in a variety of foreign languages and a European experience for a reasonable price; and finally, the Hungarian government offers a state scholarship for the Turks since 2014. Turkish students studying in Hungary constitute an important bridge between the two countries linked by common values and history and can refresh the developing relationship of Ankara and Budapest.
Keywords: Education, Study Abroad, Hungary, Turkey.